Lưu trữ

Thứ Tư, 3 tháng 3, 2021

Cassava breeding in Vietnam

 


Vietnam's cassava industry, with over one billion dollars in export turnover each year, is experiencing the CMD cassava mosaic virus disease.“Guiding farmers to buy disease-free KM419 cassava is the safest and most economical solution compared to the current situation of cassava leaf mosaic infection”, the official dispatch of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Department of Food Protection. No. 1068 / BVTV TV dated May 3, 2019 "Regarding the use of KM419 cassava varieties in production" identified. The effective solution to select Vietnamese cassava varieties is to use KM419 cassava with high starch yield, disease-free, and continue to cross-breed with existing CMD-resistant cassava varieties. 
 

In 2020 (MARD & DARD Tay Ninh, 11/24/2020) in Tay Ninh, the area of KM419 planting in Winter-Spring crop is 54%, Summer-Autumn crop 62%, and Mùa crop 80.7% . In 2016, (before the CMD epidemic) Two main cassava varieties KM419 and KM94 accounted for 38% and 31.7% of the total area of Vietnamese cassava, respectively (RTB CGIAR Newsletter 2016 http://www.rtb.cgiar.org/2016-annual-report/assessment-reveals-that-most-cassava-grown-in-vietnam-has-a-ciat-pedigree/?fbclid=IwAR0H4zQAeZq89ioYRhx_B2nL8oG52Lp6Jfdi8qASJKkAQcdF7yYpu0oqU1Y


see more Cassava varieties KM419 and KM440 Phu Yen https://youtu.be/XDM6i8vLHcI and https://hoangkimlong.wordpress.com/category/chon-giong-san-khang-cmd/).
 

Thứ Bảy, 15 tháng 8, 2020

New progress in cassava breeding

New progress in cassava breeding 
Hoàng Kim
Congratulations to Dr. Jonathan Newby on new progress in cassava breeding: Sustainable solutions to cassava diseases in Southeast Asia. Webinar Series: No 1 Progress in developing commercially viable CMD varieties for Asia. Excellent information. Best regards.

See more at https://cassavadiseasesolutionsasia.net/webinar-series/
I have two questions:

1) What is the cassava variety that is resistant to CMD in the picture above? How is it related to genetic origin for the cassava variety KM419?

2) How does this cassava variety compare the starch yield with the current KM419 and KM94 cassava which accounts for 42% and 31% of the Vietnamese cassava area? Thanks.

see more Quản lý bền vững sắn châu Á https://hoangkimvn.wordpress.com/2020/08/15/quan-ly-ben-vung-san-chau-a/http://fa.hcmuaf.edu.vn/hoangkimlonghttps://cnm365.wordpress.com/category/chao-ngay-moi-15-thang-8;

FOOD CROPS NEWS
New progress in cassava breeding.


Researchers help inform cassava breeding worldwide By Matt Hayes | August 24, 2020 see more https://news.cornell.edu/stories/2020/08/researchers-help-inform-cassava-breeding-worldwide
Anetor Omonuwa, assistant farm officer at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, holds a cassava variety undergoing field testing for high yield potential in IITA’s Ikenne research station in Nigeria.

Researchers help inform cassava breeding worldwide

By Matt Hayes | August 24, 2020


Scientists in Cornell’s NextGen Cassava project (https://www.nextgencassava.org/) have uncovered new details regarding cassava’s genetic architecture that may help breeders more easily pinpoint traits for one of Africa’s most vital crops.

Their findings are reported in a study published July 31 in Plant Molecular Biology.

The scientists analyzed large breeding populations measured extensively over successive years and stages of selection in multi-environment field trials in Nigeria. The genome-wide association analysis explored genomic regions most responsible for desirable traits in cassava, a food crop that provides the main source of calories for 500 million people across the globe.

The scientists found more than 40 quantitative trait loci associated with a total of 14 traits, responsible for characteristics such as disease responses, nutritional quality and yield. The traits were classified broadly into four categories – biotic stress, quality, plant agronomy and agro-morphology.

“Our findings provide critical new entries into the catalogue of major loci available to cassava breeders,” said Ismail Rabbi, a molecular geneticist and plant breeder at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and a member of the NextGen project. “These markers should greatly improve cassava research and provide another powerful tool for the breeders’ toolbox.”

“Cassava is an incredibly useful food and industrial crop today and will be more so in the future as climate change reshapes agriculture everywhere, but first we must better understand its complex genome,” said Chiedozie Egesi, NextGen program director and co-author on the study.

Based in the Department of Global Development, the NextGen Cassava Breeding project supports scientists from many disciplines with advanced technologies and methods. The project works to empower smallholder cassava farmers in sub-Saharan Africa by developing, releasing and distributing improved cassava varieties.

Plant diseases and pests like cassava mosaic disease (CMD) and cassava green mite are major constraints to cassava production in Africa, India and across Asia, including Vietnam and Thailand. Infections of CMD can lead to yield losses of 82%, or more than 30 million tons each year.

“A complete understanding of cassava’s genetic architecture is the critical step needed to accelerating genetic improvement and bring lasting benefits to farmers and consumers who depend on this crop for food and income throughout the world,” said Egesi, who’s also a visiting scientist in the Department of Global Development and an adjunct professor of plant breeding and genetics in the School of Integrative Plant Science, in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

While the findings revealed novel genomic regions, it also revealed additional markers associated with previously measured traits.

Data from the study was made freely available through several commercial genotyping service vendors. The scientists plan further studies using germplasm from other regions, including East Africa and Latin America, which they say should bolster the catalogue of major effect loci available for molecular breeding.

Study co-authors include Cornell adjunct professor Jean-Luc Jannink and researchers from IITA and the National Root Crops Research Institute in Nigeria. Researchers from the Boyce Thompson Institute and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agriculture Research Service also contributed.

NextGen Cassava is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and by UK Aid, a British government initiative.

Matt Hayes is associate director for communications for Global Development in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Thứ Hai, 15 tháng 7, 2019

Cassava in Vietnam an overview of production and selection



CASSAVA IN VIET NAM AN OVERVIEW
OF PRODUCTION AND SELECTTION

  Hoang Long[1], Nguyen Thi Truc Mai[2], Hoang Kim[3],
Nguyen Bach Mai[4], Ishitani Manabu [5] and Reinhardt Howeler[6]

Abstract
The cassava revolution in Vietnam has yielded spectacular results in trials organized in Tay Ninh, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 t/ha  to 36 t/ha - an increase of more than 400 percent. The recent progress of sustainable cultivation techniques for cassava in Vietnam are three provinces of Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Phu Yen, the key  study area. In Vietnam, cassava has become the third most important food crop, after rice and maize. In 2017 the cassava area in Vietnam reached 532,501 ha, with a production of 10.26 million tons, and a yield of 19.28 t/ha. Within Asia, Vietnam is the four largest producer, after Thailand,  Indonesia and Cambodia. Between 1971 and 2000, cassava yields in the country ranged from 6 to 8 t/ha, and the crop was grown mainly for human food and animal feeding. This changed markedly with the introduction by CIAT in 1988 of some high-yielding breeding lines and varieties from Thailand. Two varieties, Rayong 60 and KU 50, were selected for release in 1993 and 1995 and named as KM60 and KM94, respectively. During the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st Century, Vietnam produced several new cassava varieties, initially mainly selections from sexual seed from Thailand and CIAT, such as KM95-3, SM937-26, KM98-1, KM98-7, but also made crosses that resulted in the release of the latest new varieties: KM140, KM98-5 and KM419. Cassava in Vietnam has great potential but also big challenges. At the national level, cassava has become one of the main export crops which has provided for millions of smallholders an opportunity to increase their yields and profits. Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons: The Vietnam National Cassava Program (VNCP), 6M, 10T and Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) are collaborative experiences that helped to bring advanced technologies into production for millions of poor farmers. This included the selection of high-yielding varieties and the testing and selection by farmers of appropriate technologies. New variety KM419: this is a short duration variety with a fresh root yield of 35-55 t/ha (about 28% higher than KM94) and a starch content of 28-31%. This variety is now grown in about 500,000 ha with 220,000 ha in Viet Nam and 280,000ha in Cambodia. KM419 and KM94 with 42% and 37% of the area of Vietnamese cassava today, with about 50% and 40% of the current cassava area of Cambodia.  The Cassava sustainable development in Dac Lak and Phu Yen was similar to that in Tay Ninh. The breeding and adoption of new varieties, such as KM419 and KM94, resulted in a complete transformation of cassava, from a poor man’s food crop to a highly profitable industrial crop. Cassava in Vietnam: an amazing success story. This report summarizes the achievements and lessons of Vietnamese cassava. Main problems and solutions to improve cassava product chain in Vietnam. The recent cassava boom in productivity and economic efficiency coincided with the emergence and serious spread of the world and Vietnam of cassava pest disease (CWBD dragon broom and CMD cassava mosaic). In particular, leaf mosaic disease (caused by the harmful virus of Sri Lanka Cassava Mosaic Virus) spread very quickly and seriously damaged cassava growing areas. Research and development topic "Selection of high yielding cassava varieties resistant to some major pests and diseases suitable to the conditions of three main cassava growing regions in Vietnam"

Key words: Cassava in Vietnam, production and selection, an overview


Hoang Long et al. 2019. Paper presented at ChangHae Group and VNCP “Working together 6Ms 10T and Commercial Cassava Area”, Vietnam Korea Green Road, 16 July 2019.
[1] Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; hoanglongvn85@gmail.com
2 Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF), 102 Phung Hung, Hue, Vietnam;
3 Tay Nguyen University (TNU), 567 Le Duan - Buon Ma Thuot , Dak Lak , Vietnam;
  maithuyantam@gmail.com  
4 Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
6 CIAT-Emeritus; r.howeler@cgiar.org
5 CIAT Cassava Office for Asia, ILCMB/ AGI, 200 Pham Van Dong , Ha Noi, Vietnam;



Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then


CASSAVA AND VIETNAM: NOW AND THEN
Hoàng Kim

On 21 -25 August, 2017, Dr. Claude M. Fauquet, Director of the Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21), who cassava trip in Vietnam, do a road trip for five days to visit four key provinces and city Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh city, DakLak, and Phu Yen. We look at cassava research and production and processing and shared meeting with presentations and discussions on collaboration between GCP21, CIAT and IAS, NLU for the ‘Cassava Conservation and Sustainable Development in Vietnam’.

"I have learned a great deal about cassava in Vietnam and I have a better view of what the near future will be in your country! The road from Daklak to Phu Yen was indeed very interesting and the cassava plantations are quite impressive. I was also quite interested to see the decline in cassava plantations with the competition with sugarcane and pepper, that is quite a concern! And the future will tell us what will happen. And thanks for organizing the visit to the village with the vice-king of cassava and his colleagues, very interesting and very enthusiastic lunch! I hope that his example will teach other farmers to adopt new varieties and that you can help in the process". Dr. Claude said.

After cassa trip in Vietnam. Dr. Claude send email to Dr. Hoang Kim and VNCP group:

"Hoang, I am coming to you, because you know everything in Vietnam and therefore you can probably advise on the next phase.
In our exchange of information prior to my visit, I said that the outcome of such visit was mostly unpredictable, and I believe now that the outcome could be to set-up a regional task force to control CMD in the region!
The following points are clear to me:
1.   The disease is now spreading quickly; mid 2016 the infection was located in a few places in Cambodia and now it is in 5 provinces in East Cambodia and at least one in Vietnam.
2.   The disease is mostly spread by cuttings, although whiteflies are present they play for now a minor, but important role.
3.   There are several initiatives that have been taken; JIICA, CIAT, FAO, ACIAR, but none at the level required to control the disease.
4.   We need to set-up a regional project simply because viruses do not know about borders and there is a lot of traffic of cuttings, at least Cambodia-Vietnam.
5.   Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam should all be enrolled in the plan.
6.   GCP21 could serve as a catalyzer to promote the development of this regional plan.
I have contacted all parties, including Thailand (TTDI and KU), waiting for more comments. So far the idea is shared by many people.
My question to you are:
·     Do you share my views about the necessity of the regional plan?
·     Who are the very key Vietnamese institutions and persons in Vietnam who should be involved in the preparation of such plan.
·     Is there anybody in charge of CMD in Vietnam to collect and centralize samples, information…
Many thanks

Claude M. Fauquet,
Director of the Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21)

See more ...

Cassava conservation and sustainable development in Vietnam




  Hoang Kim[1], Nguyen Thi Truc Mai[2], Nguyen Bach Mai[3] and Reinhardt Howeler[4]

ABSTRACT

The project entitled “Vietnam Cassava Conservation and Sustainable Development” has been very successful, as indicated by the results of trials and demonstrations conducted in Tay Ninh, Dak Lak, Phu Yen and Dong Nai provinces, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 t/ha to 36 t/ha - a more than four fold increase.


During the period from 1975 to 2015 cassava has become the third most important food crop in Vietnam, after rice and maize. In 2013 the cassava area in Vietnam reached 544,300 ha, with a production of 9.74 million tonnes, and an average yield of 17.9 t/ha. Within Asia, Vietnam is now the third largest cassava producer, after Thailand and Indonesia. Between 1975 and 2000, cassava yields in the country ranged from 6 to 8 t/ha, and the crop was grown mainly for human food and animal feeding.
This changed markedly with the introduction by CIAT in 1988 of some high-yielding breeding lines and varieties from Thailand. Two varieties, Rayong 60 and KU 50, were selected for release in 1993 and 1995 and were named KM60 and KM94, respectively. During the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st Century, Vietnam produced several new cassava varieties, initially mainly selections from sexual seed from Thailand and CIAT, such as KM95-3, SM937-26, KM98-1, KM98-7, but our breeders also made crosses that resulted in the release of the latest new varieties: KM140, KM98-5, KM419 and others. The breeding and adoption of new varieties as well as the development and adoption of more sustainable production practices resulted in a complete transformation of cassava, from a poor man’s food crop to a highly profitable industrial crop. More recently, new advances in cassava cultivation techniques have focused on key demonstration sites in the provinces of Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Phu Yen using mainly KM419 as a very promising short-duration cassava variety with a fresh root yield of about 35-55 t/ha (28% higher than KM94) and a starch content of about 28-31%. This and other new varieties, together with new advances in cassava cultivation techniques, have yielded spectacular results in trials organized in those three provinces.

The Vietnam National Cassava Program (VNCP) has introduced various methodologies, named “6M” and “10T”, as well as Farmer Participatory Research (FPR), as collaborative experiences that helped to bring advanced technologies into production for millions of poor farmers. This included the s
election of high-yielding varieties and the testing and selection by farmers of locally appropriate technologies. Cassava in Vietnam has great potential but also faces big challenges. At the national level, cassava has become one of the main export crops, which has provided for millions of smallholders an opportunity to increase their yields and improve their standard of living.

Key words:
Cassava, production, utilization, cultivation techniques, achievements, lessons and  challenges, conservation, sustainable development, Vietnam.


Báo Nông nghiệp Việt Nam: Giới thiệu 5 giống sắn mới 
Tuyển chọn 4 giống sắn mới;  Thu hoạch sắn ở Phú Yên


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow, PhuYen


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow DakLak video 1  2, 3
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow, Tay Ninh, video 1



[1] Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
2 Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF), 102 Phung Hung, Hue, Vietnam;
3 Tay Nguyen University (TNU), 567 Le Duan - Buon Ma Thuot , Dak Lak , Vietnam;
  maithuyantam@gmail.com 
4 CIAT-Emeritus; r.howeler@cgiar.org












Thứ Bảy, 30 tháng 3, 2019

Nhà sách Việt Nam NGÔ SINH KHỐI

NHÀ SÁCH VIỆT NAM NGÔ SINH KHỐI
Hoàng Long, Hoàng Kim

tuyển chọn và giới thiệu sách quý nông nghiệp: NTS. Lê Quý Kha, TS. Lê Quý Tường 2019. NGÔ SINH KHỐI Kỹ thuật canh tác thu hoạch và chế biến phục vụ chăn nuôi, Nhà Xuất bản Nông nghiệp,  ISBN 978–604–60–2930–4 . Tài liệu Học tập CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC, Nhà sách Việt Nam foodcrops.vn  www.nhasachvietnam.blogspot.com

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