Thứ Ba, 12 tháng 3, 2019

Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then

Hoang Kim
News information from Prof. Bui Cach Tuyen : 'Primary detection of cassava mosaic virus on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in TayNinh province by using PCR technique' by Le Duc Hung, Pham Duc Toan, Bui Cach Tuyen 2019 (see more full paper by Vietnamese language)

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Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then

Kazuo Kawano
I visited Vietnam for a week this last December,  where a team of NHK video-taped for a documentary of the changes caused by the new cassava varieties I introduced 20 years ago in the lives of small framers, the enhanced activities of industrial and business communities and the development of research organizations. It was a most interesting, amusing and rewarding visit where I reunited with a multitude of former small farmers who are more than willing to show me how their living had been improved because of KM-60 and KM-94 (both CIAT-induced varieties) , many “entrepreneurs” who started from a village starch factory, and several former colleagues who became Professor, Vice Rector of Universities, Directors of research centers and so on. Vietnam can be regarded as a country who accomplished the most visible and visual progress most rapidly and efficiently utilizing CIAT-induced technology.
For my own record as well as for responding to the requests from my Vietnamese colleagues, I decided to record the changes and progress that had taken place in Vietnam in general and in cassava varietal development in particular in a series of picture stories. This is the first of long stories that would follow.
昨年の12月に、NHKの国際ドキュメンタリー番組の収録でベトナムを10年ぶりに再訪する機会があった。それは私が中心となって開発したキャッサバの多収性・高澱粉性の新品種群を20年 前に導入した事が引き起こした人々の生活向上の様子を、南から北へと訪ね歩く旅であった。今回の旅では、小農から出発して家を建て中農、富農となった多数 の人々、村の澱粉加工所の親父だったのが大工場のオーナーや実業家となっている幾人もの成功者、そして殆んど名前だけの研究員であったのが今や試験場長、 大学教授、副学長になっている昔の仲間達を訪ね歩いたが、その殆んどの人が私との再会を喜んでくれて、口々に新しいキャッサバ品種のおかげで自分達の生活 と境遇が革命的に良くなったと話してくれた。
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Cassava and Vietnam Now and Then 49 | Tình yêu cuộc sống

Aug 27, 2018 - Tình yêu, giáo dục, văn hóa, khoa học cây trồng và du lịch Việt.

See more:
Cassava in Vietnam: a successful story  
Sắn Việt Nam CIAT câu chuyện thành công
CIAT is 50: Building a sustainable food future since 1967

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Hoàng Kim  Ngọc Phương Nam  Thung dung  Dạy và học  Cây Lương thực  Dạy và Học  Tình yêu cuộc sống  Kim on LinkedIn  Kim on Facebook  Kim on Twitter

Thứ Bảy, 2 tháng 3, 2019

Food Crops News 297

Food Crops News 297. Hoang Long selects and synthesizes: Top stories: Setting the stage for cassava disease monitoring: A baseline for Vietnam and Cambodia By International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); Cassava experts gather to champion ‘orphan crop’ By Samantha Hautea | February 25, 2019;  see more

Setting the stage for cassava disease monitoring: A baseline for Vietnam and Cambodia
Researchers tracked Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus in Cambodia after its discovery in 2015. The potentially devastating virus threatens 3.5 million hectares, highlighting the need for disease-resistant varieties and rapid epidemic management

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
Cassava leaf. view more

Credit: International Center for Tropical Agriculture - Neil Palmer

Southeast Asia is the source of 95 percent of global cassava exports, and the detection in 2015 in Cambodia of the potentially harvest-devastating Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) raised alarm. By 2016, the disease - which cannot always be detected visually - had spread, showing its potential to become a major threat to the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farming families.

The virus's spread over a single growing season was documented by researchers at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and colleagues. Published February 22 in PLOS ONE by Minato et al., the study is the first systematic baseline evaluation of SLCMV in Southeast Asia, and provides information that can help decision-makers and development agencies to control the disease.

"However, the window is likely very short, and decisive collective action is required," the study warns.

Millions of smallholders grow the cash crop on more than 3.5 million hectares in Southeast Asia, generating over US$4 billion of export revenue.

Quarantine measures, restrictions on the movement of cut stems - which are sold across the region to plant new fields in a loosely regulated informal market - and eradication measures might still offer a means to control the disease. But SLCMV is also spread by a species of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), and infected plants do not always show symptoms. In the study, 14 percent of infected plants did not have typical visual symptoms. Molecular techniques were used to detect positive infections, paired with photographs of each individually sampled plant to look for visual disease symptoms.

"Documenting the outbreak and spread at an early stage is critical for understanding the dynamics of the epidemic - and pre-empting or responding effectively to future ones," said Erik Delaquis, a co-author at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture based in Vientiane, Lao PDR. The study builds on a recently published study by Delaquis et al., describing the regional exchange routes for cassava stems that can help researchers predict key points for disease arrival and spread.

"Together, the two studies provide the first published picture of the incidence of SLCMV one year after its discovery in Southeast Asia, and describe for the first time the network of planting material exchange likely to further spread the virus," Delaquis said.

"Our 2016 study provides an essential benchmark for timeline comparison," said Nami Minato, a CIAT researcher and the lead author on the latest study.

Resistance needed

Researchers collected some 6,500 samples from 420 fields in Vietnam and Cambodia during the 2016 sampling period, and discovered 49 SLCMV-infected plants across two provinces in Eastern Cambodia. While this represented only a 2 percent infection rate, since that time the disease was reported in Vietnam and Thailand, suggesting that SLCMV has taken hold in Southeast Asia.

The potential impact of a widespread SLCMV outbreak is currently unknown, partly because the variety of cassava grown in Southeast Asia differs from those grown elsewhere. But related types of cassava mosaic diseases in cassava varieties in Africa and India have shown the potential to wipe out the plant's hearty root, which is a major staple food in the developing world and generally sold for industrial starch in Southeast Asia.

As a new disease in the region, many producers are not yet familiar with its symptoms. And currently, no mobile diagnostic tools are available to farmers (though tools are currently being developed). Both issues may facilitate its spread and limit the impact of control measures. Long-term development of resistant varieties of cassava will likely be needed to control SLCMV, necessitating considerable investment in breeding programs over many years, said the researchers. Improved planting material use and distribution practices were also identified to help control the spread of SLCMV and other cassava pests and diseases over long distances.


Funders and partners

This research was undertaken as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB). The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) provided funding for this work through a short research activity grant (SRA). The research team is especially grateful to collaborators and young researchers who helped to provide surveillance for the disease from Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) and Plant Protection Department (PPD)

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