Thứ Hai, 15 tháng 7, 2019

Cassava in Vietnam an overview of production and selection



CASSAVA IN VIET NAM AN OVERVIEW
OF PRODUCTION AND SELECTTION

  Hoang Long[1], Nguyen Thi Truc Mai[2], Hoang Kim[3],
Nguyen Bach Mai[4], Ishitani Manabu [5] and Reinhardt Howeler[6]

Abstract
The cassava revolution in Vietnam has yielded spectacular results in trials organized in Tay Ninh, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 t/ha  to 36 t/ha - an increase of more than 400 percent. The recent progress of sustainable cultivation techniques for cassava in Vietnam are three provinces of Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Phu Yen, the key  study area. In Vietnam, cassava has become the third most important food crop, after rice and maize. In 2017 the cassava area in Vietnam reached 532,501 ha, with a production of 10.26 million tons, and a yield of 19.28 t/ha. Within Asia, Vietnam is the four largest producer, after Thailand,  Indonesia and Cambodia. Between 1971 and 2000, cassava yields in the country ranged from 6 to 8 t/ha, and the crop was grown mainly for human food and animal feeding. This changed markedly with the introduction by CIAT in 1988 of some high-yielding breeding lines and varieties from Thailand. Two varieties, Rayong 60 and KU 50, were selected for release in 1993 and 1995 and named as KM60 and KM94, respectively. During the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st Century, Vietnam produced several new cassava varieties, initially mainly selections from sexual seed from Thailand and CIAT, such as KM95-3, SM937-26, KM98-1, KM98-7, but also made crosses that resulted in the release of the latest new varieties: KM140, KM98-5 and KM419. Cassava in Vietnam has great potential but also big challenges. At the national level, cassava has become one of the main export crops which has provided for millions of smallholders an opportunity to increase their yields and profits. Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons: The Vietnam National Cassava Program (VNCP), 6M, 10T and Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) are collaborative experiences that helped to bring advanced technologies into production for millions of poor farmers. This included the selection of high-yielding varieties and the testing and selection by farmers of appropriate technologies. New variety KM419: this is a short duration variety with a fresh root yield of 35-55 t/ha (about 28% higher than KM94) and a starch content of 28-31%. This variety is now grown in about 500,000 ha with 220,000 ha in Viet Nam and 280,000ha in Cambodia. KM419 and KM94 with 42% and 37% of the area of Vietnamese cassava today, with about 50% and 40% of the current cassava area of Cambodia.  The Cassava sustainable development in Dac Lak and Phu Yen was similar to that in Tay Ninh. The breeding and adoption of new varieties, such as KM419 and KM94, resulted in a complete transformation of cassava, from a poor man’s food crop to a highly profitable industrial crop. Cassava in Vietnam: an amazing success story. This report summarizes the achievements and lessons of Vietnamese cassava. Main problems and solutions to improve cassava product chain in Vietnam. The recent cassava boom in productivity and economic efficiency coincided with the emergence and serious spread of the world and Vietnam of cassava pest disease (CWBD dragon broom and CMD cassava mosaic). In particular, leaf mosaic disease (caused by the harmful virus of Sri Lanka Cassava Mosaic Virus) spread very quickly and seriously damaged cassava growing areas. Research and development topic "Selection of high yielding cassava varieties resistant to some major pests and diseases suitable to the conditions of three main cassava growing regions in Vietnam"

Key words: Cassava in Vietnam, production and selection, an overview


Hoang Long et al. 2019. Paper presented at ChangHae Group and VNCP “Working together 6Ms 10T and Commercial Cassava Area”, Vietnam Korea Green Road, 16 July 2019.
[1] Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; hoanglongvn85@gmail.com
2 Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF), 102 Phung Hung, Hue, Vietnam;
3 Tay Nguyen University (TNU), 567 Le Duan - Buon Ma Thuot , Dak Lak , Vietnam;
  maithuyantam@gmail.com  
4 Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
6 CIAT-Emeritus; r.howeler@cgiar.org
5 CIAT Cassava Office for Asia, ILCMB/ AGI, 200 Pham Van Dong , Ha Noi, Vietnam;



Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then


CASSAVA AND VIETNAM: NOW AND THEN
Hoàng Kim

On 21 -25 August, 2017, Dr. Claude M. Fauquet, Director of the Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21), who cassava trip in Vietnam, do a road trip for five days to visit four key provinces and city Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh city, DakLak, and Phu Yen. We look at cassava research and production and processing and shared meeting with presentations and discussions on collaboration between GCP21, CIAT and IAS, NLU for the ‘Cassava Conservation and Sustainable Development in Vietnam’.

"I have learned a great deal about cassava in Vietnam and I have a better view of what the near future will be in your country! The road from Daklak to Phu Yen was indeed very interesting and the cassava plantations are quite impressive. I was also quite interested to see the decline in cassava plantations with the competition with sugarcane and pepper, that is quite a concern! And the future will tell us what will happen. And thanks for organizing the visit to the village with the vice-king of cassava and his colleagues, very interesting and very enthusiastic lunch! I hope that his example will teach other farmers to adopt new varieties and that you can help in the process". Dr. Claude said.

After cassa trip in Vietnam. Dr. Claude send email to Dr. Hoang Kim and VNCP group:

"Hoang, I am coming to you, because you know everything in Vietnam and therefore you can probably advise on the next phase.
In our exchange of information prior to my visit, I said that the outcome of such visit was mostly unpredictable, and I believe now that the outcome could be to set-up a regional task force to control CMD in the region!
The following points are clear to me:
1.   The disease is now spreading quickly; mid 2016 the infection was located in a few places in Cambodia and now it is in 5 provinces in East Cambodia and at least one in Vietnam.
2.   The disease is mostly spread by cuttings, although whiteflies are present they play for now a minor, but important role.
3.   There are several initiatives that have been taken; JIICA, CIAT, FAO, ACIAR, but none at the level required to control the disease.
4.   We need to set-up a regional project simply because viruses do not know about borders and there is a lot of traffic of cuttings, at least Cambodia-Vietnam.
5.   Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam should all be enrolled in the plan.
6.   GCP21 could serve as a catalyzer to promote the development of this regional plan.
I have contacted all parties, including Thailand (TTDI and KU), waiting for more comments. So far the idea is shared by many people.
My question to you are:
·     Do you share my views about the necessity of the regional plan?
·     Who are the very key Vietnamese institutions and persons in Vietnam who should be involved in the preparation of such plan.
·     Is there anybody in charge of CMD in Vietnam to collect and centralize samples, information…
Many thanks

Claude M. Fauquet,
Director of the Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21)

See more ...

Cassava conservation and sustainable development in Vietnam




  Hoang Kim[1], Nguyen Thi Truc Mai[2], Nguyen Bach Mai[3] and Reinhardt Howeler[4]

ABSTRACT

The project entitled “Vietnam Cassava Conservation and Sustainable Development” has been very successful, as indicated by the results of trials and demonstrations conducted in Tay Ninh, Dak Lak, Phu Yen and Dong Nai provinces, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 t/ha to 36 t/ha - a more than four fold increase.


During the period from 1975 to 2015 cassava has become the third most important food crop in Vietnam, after rice and maize. In 2013 the cassava area in Vietnam reached 544,300 ha, with a production of 9.74 million tonnes, and an average yield of 17.9 t/ha. Within Asia, Vietnam is now the third largest cassava producer, after Thailand and Indonesia. Between 1975 and 2000, cassava yields in the country ranged from 6 to 8 t/ha, and the crop was grown mainly for human food and animal feeding.
This changed markedly with the introduction by CIAT in 1988 of some high-yielding breeding lines and varieties from Thailand. Two varieties, Rayong 60 and KU 50, were selected for release in 1993 and 1995 and were named KM60 and KM94, respectively. During the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st Century, Vietnam produced several new cassava varieties, initially mainly selections from sexual seed from Thailand and CIAT, such as KM95-3, SM937-26, KM98-1, KM98-7, but our breeders also made crosses that resulted in the release of the latest new varieties: KM140, KM98-5, KM419 and others. The breeding and adoption of new varieties as well as the development and adoption of more sustainable production practices resulted in a complete transformation of cassava, from a poor man’s food crop to a highly profitable industrial crop. More recently, new advances in cassava cultivation techniques have focused on key demonstration sites in the provinces of Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Phu Yen using mainly KM419 as a very promising short-duration cassava variety with a fresh root yield of about 35-55 t/ha (28% higher than KM94) and a starch content of about 28-31%. This and other new varieties, together with new advances in cassava cultivation techniques, have yielded spectacular results in trials organized in those three provinces.

The Vietnam National Cassava Program (VNCP) has introduced various methodologies, named “6M” and “10T”, as well as Farmer Participatory Research (FPR), as collaborative experiences that helped to bring advanced technologies into production for millions of poor farmers. This included the s
election of high-yielding varieties and the testing and selection by farmers of locally appropriate technologies. Cassava in Vietnam has great potential but also faces big challenges. At the national level, cassava has become one of the main export crops, which has provided for millions of smallholders an opportunity to increase their yields and improve their standard of living.

Key words:
Cassava, production, utilization, cultivation techniques, achievements, lessons and  challenges, conservation, sustainable development, Vietnam.


Báo Nông nghiệp Việt Nam: Giới thiệu 5 giống sắn mới 
Tuyển chọn 4 giống sắn mới;  Thu hoạch sắn ở Phú Yên


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow, PhuYen


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow DakLak video 1  2, 3
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow, Tay Ninh, video 1



[1] Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
2 Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF), 102 Phung Hung, Hue, Vietnam;
3 Tay Nguyen University (TNU), 567 Le Duan - Buon Ma Thuot , Dak Lak , Vietnam;
  maithuyantam@gmail.com 
4 CIAT-Emeritus; r.howeler@cgiar.org












Thứ Bảy, 30 tháng 3, 2019

Nhà sách Việt Nam NGÔ SINH KHỐI

NHÀ SÁCH VIỆT NAM NGÔ SINH KHỐI
Hoàng Long, Hoàng Kim

tuyển chọn và giới thiệu sách quý nông nghiệp: NTS. Lê Quý Kha, TS. Lê Quý Tường 2019. NGÔ SINH KHỐI Kỹ thuật canh tác thu hoạch và chế biến phục vụ chăn nuôi, Nhà Xuất bản Nông nghiệp,  ISBN 978–604–60–2930–4 . Tài liệu Học tập CÂY LƯƠNG THỰC, Nhà sách Việt Nam foodcrops.vn  www.nhasachvietnam.blogspot.com

BÀI VIẾT MỚI


Thứ Ba, 12 tháng 3, 2019

Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then

CASSAVA AND VIETNAM: NOW AND THEN
Hoang Kim
News information from Prof. Bui Cach Tuyen : 'Primary detection of cassava mosaic virus on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in TayNinh province by using PCR technique' by Le Duc Hung, Pham Duc Toan, Bui Cach Tuyen 2019 (see more full paper by Vietnamese language)

see more


Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then

(キャッサバとベトナム-今昔物語)
Kazuo Kawano
I visited Vietnam for a week this last December,  where a team of NHK video-taped for a documentary of the changes caused by the new cassava varieties I introduced 20 years ago in the lives of small framers, the enhanced activities of industrial and business communities and the development of research organizations. It was a most interesting, amusing and rewarding visit where I reunited with a multitude of former small farmers who are more than willing to show me how their living had been improved because of KM-60 and KM-94 (both CIAT-induced varieties) , many “entrepreneurs” who started from a village starch factory, and several former colleagues who became Professor, Vice Rector of Universities, Directors of research centers and so on. Vietnam can be regarded as a country who accomplished the most visible and visual progress most rapidly and efficiently utilizing CIAT-induced technology.
For my own record as well as for responding to the requests from my Vietnamese colleagues, I decided to record the changes and progress that had taken place in Vietnam in general and in cassava varietal development in particular in a series of picture stories. This is the first of long stories that would follow.
昨年の12月に、NHKの国際ドキュメンタリー番組の収録でベトナムを10年ぶりに再訪する機会があった。それは私が中心となって開発したキャッサバの多収性・高澱粉性の新品種群を20年 前に導入した事が引き起こした人々の生活向上の様子を、南から北へと訪ね歩く旅であった。今回の旅では、小農から出発して家を建て中農、富農となった多数 の人々、村の澱粉加工所の親父だったのが大工場のオーナーや実業家となっている幾人もの成功者、そして殆んど名前だけの研究員であったのが今や試験場長、 大学教授、副学長になっている昔の仲間達を訪ね歩いたが、その殆んどの人が私との再会を喜んでくれて、口々に新しいキャッサバ品種のおかげで自分達の生活 と境遇が革命的に良くなったと話してくれた。
私自身の記録のため、それにベトナムの昔の仲間からのリクエストに答える目的もあって、この20年間のベトナムの発展とキャッサバ生産の進展を絵物語風に書き留めることにした。これはその長い物語の始まりの章である。
see more

Cassava and Vietnam Now and Then 49 | Tình yêu cuộc sống
https://hoangkimlong.wordpress.com/2018/08/27/san-viet-nam-hom-nay-va-ngay-mai-2/


Aug 27, 2018 - Tình yêu, giáo dục, văn hóa, khoa học cây trồng và du lịch Việt.

See more:
Cassava in Vietnam: a successful story  
Sắn Việt Nam CIAT câu chuyện thành công
CIAT is 50: Building a sustainable food future since 1967

Video yêu thích
KimYouTube
Trở về trang chính
Hoàng Kim  Ngọc Phương Nam  Thung dung  Dạy và học  Cây Lương thực  Dạy và Học  Tình yêu cuộc sống  Kim on LinkedIn  Kim on Facebook  Kim on Twitter


Thứ Bảy, 2 tháng 3, 2019

Food Crops News 297

Food Crops News 297. Hoang Long selects and synthesizes: Top stories: Setting the stage for cassava disease monitoring: A baseline for Vietnam and Cambodia By International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT); Cassava experts gather to champion ‘orphan crop’ By Samantha Hautea | February 25, 2019;  see more

Setting the stage for cassava disease monitoring: A baseline for Vietnam and Cambodia
Researchers tracked Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus in Cambodia after its discovery in 2015. The potentially devastating virus threatens 3.5 million hectares, highlighting the need for disease-resistant varieties and rapid epidemic management

International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)
Cassava leaf. view more

Credit: International Center for Tropical Agriculture - Neil Palmer

Southeast Asia is the source of 95 percent of global cassava exports, and the detection in 2015 in Cambodia of the potentially harvest-devastating Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) raised alarm. By 2016, the disease - which cannot always be detected visually - had spread, showing its potential to become a major threat to the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farming families.

The virus's spread over a single growing season was documented by researchers at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) and colleagues. Published February 22 in PLOS ONE by Minato et al., the study is the first systematic baseline evaluation of SLCMV in Southeast Asia, and provides information that can help decision-makers and development agencies to control the disease.

"However, the window is likely very short, and decisive collective action is required," the study warns.

Millions of smallholders grow the cash crop on more than 3.5 million hectares in Southeast Asia, generating over US$4 billion of export revenue.

Quarantine measures, restrictions on the movement of cut stems - which are sold across the region to plant new fields in a loosely regulated informal market - and eradication measures might still offer a means to control the disease. But SLCMV is also spread by a species of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci), and infected plants do not always show symptoms. In the study, 14 percent of infected plants did not have typical visual symptoms. Molecular techniques were used to detect positive infections, paired with photographs of each individually sampled plant to look for visual disease symptoms.

"Documenting the outbreak and spread at an early stage is critical for understanding the dynamics of the epidemic - and pre-empting or responding effectively to future ones," said Erik Delaquis, a co-author at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture based in Vientiane, Lao PDR. The study builds on a recently published study by Delaquis et al., describing the regional exchange routes for cassava stems that can help researchers predict key points for disease arrival and spread.

"Together, the two studies provide the first published picture of the incidence of SLCMV one year after its discovery in Southeast Asia, and describe for the first time the network of planting material exchange likely to further spread the virus," Delaquis said.

"Our 2016 study provides an essential benchmark for timeline comparison," said Nami Minato, a CIAT researcher and the lead author on the latest study.

Resistance needed

Researchers collected some 6,500 samples from 420 fields in Vietnam and Cambodia during the 2016 sampling period, and discovered 49 SLCMV-infected plants across two provinces in Eastern Cambodia. While this represented only a 2 percent infection rate, since that time the disease was reported in Vietnam and Thailand, suggesting that SLCMV has taken hold in Southeast Asia.

The potential impact of a widespread SLCMV outbreak is currently unknown, partly because the variety of cassava grown in Southeast Asia differs from those grown elsewhere. But related types of cassava mosaic diseases in cassava varieties in Africa and India have shown the potential to wipe out the plant's hearty root, which is a major staple food in the developing world and generally sold for industrial starch in Southeast Asia.

As a new disease in the region, many producers are not yet familiar with its symptoms. And currently, no mobile diagnostic tools are available to farmers (though tools are currently being developed). Both issues may facilitate its spread and limit the impact of control measures. Long-term development of resistant varieties of cassava will likely be needed to control SLCMV, necessitating considerable investment in breeding programs over many years, said the researchers. Improved planting material use and distribution practices were also identified to help control the spread of SLCMV and other cassava pests and diseases over long distances.

###

Funders and partners

This research was undertaken as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTB). The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) provided funding for this work through a short research activity grant (SRA). The research team is especially grateful to collaborators and young researchers who helped to provide surveillance for the disease from Plant Protection Research Institute (PPRI) and Plant Protection Department (PPD)

Cassava experts gather to champion 'orphan crop'

Cornell Chronicle

























Cassava launches digital learning platform

Chronicle






Vietnam to increase cassava exports

Khmer Times




How farmers can control cassava diseases

Daily Monitor


















Cassava down in 2018-2019

The Phnom Penh Post




Colombian restaurants to try in Las Vegas

Eater Vegas







CASSAVA PROCESSING PLANT COMING

ZNBC







Cassava Smartech Acquires MARS

Technology Zimbabwe




EATING OUT: Street kitchen serves tasty snacks

Daily Nation




Cassava: Benefits, toxicity, and how to prepare

Medical News Today










Cassava's Uber-like - service a hit

The Zimbabwe Standard






































A girl eats a food supplement in Ifotaka, southern Madagascar, in December 2018.






Cassava in the field. Credit: H. Vanderschuren/ULiège


Cassava with improved starch


































Francis and Donald from Vanuatu, with a cassava tuber. (ABC Rural: Daniel Fitzgerald)






Co-owner Yuka Ioroi and chef-ownerKris Toliao





Cassava production in Nigeria by state

Legit.ng




































More cassava for less timeMore cassava for less time - World | ReliefWeb










Why Yuca Should Love Cassava

HuffPost






































Cassava processing factory to open

The Phnom Penh Post




Sweet sweet Trinidad

TT Newsday

















Cassava price up this year

Khmer Times









Cassava yield rises yet full potential untapped

The Daily Star




cassava

Search results

Translate

Lưu trữ