Thứ Năm, ngày 16 tháng 10 năm 2014

New result of developing the cassava variety KM419




 

Hoang Kim1, Tran Ngoc Ngoan2, Nguyen Thi Truc Mai4, Nguyen Bach Mai5, Vo Van Quang3, Nguyen Phuong1, Hoang Long3, Nguyen Minh Cuong1, Dao Trọng Tuan1, Nguyen Thi Le Dung1, Tran Cong Khanh3, Nguyen Minh Hieu2, Nguyen Van Bo6,  Nguyen Thị Cach4, Nguyen Trong Hien6, Le Huy Ham7, Hernan Ceballos8, Manabu Ishitani8

1) 
Nong Lam University  (NLU); 2) Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry (TUAF); 3) Institute of Agricultural Science for Southern Vietnam (IAS); 4)
Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF); 5) Tay Nguyen University (TNU); 6) Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS); 7) Agricutural Genetics Institute (AGI); 8) Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT)




Summary

The cassava variety KM 419 was developed from the cross combination BKA900 x KM 98-5.  KM 419 has the advantage of short duration  with fresh root yield 34.9 – 54.9  ton/ ha (higher than KM 94 about 27.7- 29.6% ), good root shape with white flesh, high adaptability to various production conditions, starch content 27,8 - 30,7%, starch yield about 10,1 -15,8 ton/ha and root dry matter content about 15,6-21,6 ton/ha for 7-10 months after planting ( KM94 starch content 26,0-28,3 %, starch yield about 6,4- 9,5 ton/ha and root dry matter content about 9,0- 13,2 ton/ha for 9-11 months after planting). KM419 was moderately susceptible to cassava bacterial blight. Production area of KM419 in the Tây Ninh, Dong Nai, Dak Lak, Phu Yen in 2013 was up to more than 50,000 ha. KM419 was proposed by the Nong Lam University in Ho Chi Minh city (NLU) and Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry to be main production in the Southeast, Central Highland, North and South Central Coast and Northeast & Northwest of Vietnam.




Key words: Cassava  KM419, high starch yield, cassava breeding, Vietnam.

Kết quả chọn tạo và phát triển giống sắn KM419


Hoàng Kim1, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn2, Nguyễn Thị Trúc Mai4, Nguyễn Bạch Mai5, Võ Văn Quang3, Nguyễn Phương1, Hoàng Long3, Nguyễn Minh Cường1, Đào Trọng Tuấn1, Nguyễn Thị Lệ Dung1, Trần Công Khanh3, Nguyễn Minh Hiếu2, Nguyễn Văn Bộ6,  Nguyễn Thị Cách4, Nguyễn Trọng Hiển6, Lê Huy Hàm7, Hernan Ceballos8, Manabu Ishitani8

    Trong sách: Bộ Nông nghiệp và Phát triển Nông thôn, Trung tâm Khuyến nông Quốc gia. Diễn đàn Khuyến nông và Nông nghiệp lần thứ 18. Chuyên đề: Một số giải pháp phát triển sắn bền vững. Tây Ninh ngày 26-8-2013, trang 58-83 . Kết quả mới phát triển giống sắn KM419 đã lưu và bổ sung thông tin ứng dụng giống sắn mới KM419 và chuyển giao kỹ thuật thâm canh sắn bền vững. 

Tóm tắt


Giống sắn KM 419 được chọn tạo từ tổ hợp lai BKA900 x KM 98-5. Đặc điểm giống: thời gian sinh trưởng 7-10 tháng, năng suất củ tươi 34,9-54,9 tấn / ha (vượt 27,7- 29.6% so với KM94), hàm lượng tinh bột 27,8 - 30,7%, năng suất tinh bột 10,1 -15,8 tấn /ha, năng suất sắn lát khô 15,6-21,6 tấn/ha (so với KM94 hàm lượng tinh bột 25,0- 28,4 %, năng suất tinh bột 6,4-9,5 tấn/ ha, năng suất sắn lát khô 6,4-9,5 tấn/ha). Giống sắn KM419 có chiều cây cao vừa phải, thân thẳng, tán gọn, nhặt mắt, lá xanh đậm, ngọn xanh, cọng phớt đỏ, dạng củ đồng đều, thịt củ màu trắng, rất thích hợp với chế biến và thị trường, nhiễm nhẹ đến trung bình bệnh cháy lá. Giống sắn KM419 đã được khảo nghiệm cơ bản, khảo nghiệm sản xuất và phát triển rộng tại Tây Ninh, Đồng Nai, Đắk Lắk, Phú Yên,… được nông dân các địa phương ưa chuộng và phát triển nhanh trong sản xuất với tên gọi sắn giống cao sản siêu bột Nông Lâm. Đặc biệt tại tỉnh Tây Ninh, KM419 là giống sắn chủ lực được trồng trên 50% diện tích sắn của toàn tỉnh mang lại bội thu năng suất và hiệu quả cao về kinh tế xã hội. Giống sắn KM419 được Trường Đại học Nông Lâm thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, Trường Đại học Nông Lâm Thái Nguyên, cùng với các Sở Nông nghiệp Phát triển Nông thôn Tây Ninh, Đồng Nai, Đắk Lắk, Phú Yên đề nghị đặc cách công nhận giống chính thức, định hướng ưu tiên sử dụng cho vùng Đông Nam Bộ, Tây Nguyên, Duyên hải Nam Trung Bộ, Duyên hải Bắc Trung Bộ  và vùng trung du miền núi phía Bắc. 

Từ khóa: giống sắn KM419,  cao sản siêu bột Nông Lâm, chọn tạo giống sắn

Đọc toàn văn ở đây

http://cayluongthuc.blogspot.com/2013/09/ket-qua-chon-tao-va-phat-trien-giong.html


Video yêu thích


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow
Tây Ninh hướng đến thâm canh cây mì bền vững


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow  DakLak 1
Đăk Lăk  hướng đến thâm canh sắn bền vững


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow  DakLak 2 
Đăk Lăk  hướng đến thâm canh sắn bền vững
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow  DakLak 3

Đăk Lăk  hướng đến thâm canh sắn bền vững

http://www.youtube.com/user/hoangkimvietnam

Trở về trang chính 
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Thứ Tư, ngày 02 tháng 7 năm 2014

Cassava in Ghana: save and grow



CASSAVA IN GHANA: SAVE AND GROW

Recommendation for further development cassava in Ghana

Prepared by
Hoang Kim , Vo Tong Xuan, Quan Le,  Lien Ngo ,
Richard Laryea
and  Augustus Yeboah Agyemang. 
 
Executive Summary

Ayensu Starch Company (ASCO) is the first and only starch plant in Ghana. It was installed in 2004 as the first of Presidential Initiative on Cassava. The plant was supplied by International Starch Institute, a Danish company with extensive project experience in Africa.

The plant has 50MT/day starch capacity. It is located in the central region of Ghana about 30km northwest of Accra. The plan was for the cassava growers in the area to supply the quantity that the plant needs to process. The reality was that due to various reasons, the plant was only operation for a part of the last 10 years. The relationship between the plant and the cassava growers in the area is poor with the plant complaining about the high price of fresh cassava supply and the farmers complaining about the plant not fulfilling its promise to buy the cassava.

For the above reasons the plant was lying idle for a long time until Guinness Ghana Breweries Limited started buying the starch from the plant to put into its beer formulations. Guinness Ghana is part of Diageo, the international drink company. Guinness Ghana has been buying starch from the plant since 2013 and also provided it with financial support in some critical equipment and working capital.

Guinness engaged GMX to help improve the operations of the plant, focusing first on cassava supply from 50km radius of the plant. GMX will also provide cassava agronomical advise through the setting up of a demonstration plot.

Objective of this study: 
1) Background the current situation of cassava production and utilization in Ghana and its potential into starch, cassava chips, biofuel and other products..
2) Ghana Ayensu starch factory’s cassava supply: the present situation and prospects for further development.
3) Cassava in Ghana save and grow: Recommendation for further development cassava in Ghana

Key Notes

Cassava in Ghana: save and grow


We update cassava information on website:
http://vietnamafricacassavarice.blogspot.com
(including: GMX Consulting; Food Crops; Cassava News,
Food Crops News
; FoodCropsVN)
Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons
Cassava in Ghana: Bibliography
Cassava Utilization (9 video)
Cultivation of cassava in the World and Vietnam (9 video)
Learning by Doing (học mỗi ngày)

Video

Ghana Bờ Biển Vàng (Gold Coast)
http://www.youtube.com/user/hoangkimvietnam

Links

Hoàng Kim, hoangkim, hoangkimvietnam, Ngọc Phương NamChào ngày mới Thung dung, Dạy và học, Cây Lương thực, Tin Nông nghiệp Việt Nam, Food Crops, Cassava in Vietnam, Khát khao xanh, Dayvahoc, Học mỗi ngày,  Danh nhân Việt , Food Crops News, Điểm chính, CNM365, Kim LinkedIn, KimTwitter, KimFaceBook  Đọc lại và suy ngẫm, Việt Nam tổ quốc tôi, Tình yêu cuộc sống Thơ cho con
 

Thứ Sáu, ngày 30 tháng 5 năm 2014

VAAS and CIAT: Advancing Agricultural Research in Vietnam and South East Asia



FOOD CROPS. On 29 May, 2014, the Vietnam Academic of Agricultural Science - VAAS  and The International Center for Tropical Agriculture's  - CIAT jointly organize the event on “Advancing Agricultural Research in Vietnam and South East Asia” at the Agricultural Genetics Institute (AGI) . This event  is a great opportunity to showcase the considerable progress made in the field of agricultural research by CIAT’s team and VAAS's cassava team and hear about the strategic importance of CIAT in Asia and Vietnam. You can see some papers of the expert meeting here.




CIAT in Asia and Vietnam – An External Perspective, Dr. Nguyen Van Bo, President, VAAS



o   ILCMB VAAS CIAT (Phòng Thí nghiệm Quốc tế Chọn giống Phân tử Sắn)

Thứ Ba, ngày 27 tháng 5 năm 2014

Sustainable Land and Water Program




FOOD CROPS folow up IDH The Sustainable Trade Initiative. The Sustainable Land and Water Program was launched on Friday 28 February 2014 in The Hague. The event consisted of an expert and engagement meeting in the morning and a public launch in the afternoon. The expert meeting convened a wide range of experts in the fields of water management, agriculture, supply chains and many more. Speakers from both the public and private sector presented their vision on the program approach and invited participants to share their knowledge, experience and ideas for the future development of the initiative.

Rob Swartbol, Director General International Cooperation of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, marked the official public launch of the SLWP. Mr. Swartbol stressed the need of an integrated landscape approach for the sustainable supply of natural resources. He expressed his confidence that the Sustainable Land and Water Program will boost the up-scaling and expansion of the landscape approach worldwide.


You can download the presentations from the plenary (7.0 Mb)part and the workshops (4.0 Mb)of the expert meeting here.


The Program
Supplying food, feed, fuel & fibre to 9 billion people in 2050, without depleting the earth’s natural  resources is a critical challenge for the coming years.  Increasingly, farmers, extracting industries, tourists’ facilities and expanding populations have competing claims on scarce land and water resources. Many areas in the world are progressively threatened by issues such as water shortages, soil depletion, climate change, poverty and food insecurity. These issues are often interrelated.
In many threatened areas the public and private organizations  – be it NGO’s, governments, farmers or companies - do not share information nor work effectively together to manage the natural resources under stress.
The Sustainable Land and Water Program (SLWP) aims to bring together the interests, knowledge and power of public and private stakeholders in selected “resource vulnerable” regions. It will develop a business case to jointly work, and invest in sustainable land and water management. In order to safeguard threatened long term supply of natural resources for current and future users. We believe that adding business drivers to sustainable land and water management, creates a compelling case for effective public private cooperation to mitigate risks of depletion and poverty. 

Read more
: download the SLWP 8 pager  (808.1 Kb)
Fast Track Landscapes
Organizing public-private partnerships, calls for knowledge of supply chains and involvementof local stakeholders is needed, in particular the ability to help parties with seemingly conflicting interests to work together. IDH will makes use of the knowledge and experience of Dutch companies and organizations in the fields of land and water.

The Sustainable Land and Water Program will start projects  in two regions where IDH is already active in its sector programs and a start has already been made in cooperating  with  companies, governments and other parties. This way, they can build upon existing initiatives. Thus, the program can quickly gain experience with this new integrated approach and apply lessons learned in other regions. Read more about the forst pilot projects:
Instructions and Template for Long Listing Landscape Projects
The Sustainable Land and Water Program (SLWP) now invites interested organisations to submit landscape project case descriptions that are relevant within the scope of the SLWP. The initial long list of potential cases will be the basis for selecting the next projects that will be integrated in the Program. The projects need to be implemented at a landscape scale and must be concisely described according to the criteria listed in this document (385.1 Kb).
      
Sustainable Land and Water Program at a Glance
Focus
 The main focus areas of the SLWP are:
  • Active involvement of the private sector;
  • Addressing  landscape challenges as soucing areas in need of sustainable governance of natural resources;
  • Thinking and acting at a large scale;
  • Financially sustainable approach.
Sustainable
Economic
Growth
The Sustainable Land and Water Program introduces economic drivers and future value creation to mitigate interconnected risks threatening rural areas. Companies can bring in (responsible) procurement power, investments and the ability to scale and mainstream innovative natural resource management approaches.
Transformation
Model






See more   
Sustainable Land and Water Program



Video yêu thích
 
 
http://www.youtube.com/user/hoangkimvietnam

Trở về trang chính

Hoàng Kim, hoangkim, hoangkimvietnam, Ngọc Phương NamChào ngày mới Thung dung, Dạy và học, Cây Lương thực, Tin Nông nghiệp Việt Nam, Food Crops, Cassava in Vietnam, Khát khao xanh, Dayvahoc,Học mỗi ngày,  Danh nhân Việt , Food Crops News, Điểm chính, CNM365, Kim LinkedIn, KimTwitter, KimFaceBook  Đọc lại và suy ngẫm, Việt Nam tổ quốc tôi, Tình yêu cuộc sống Thơ cho con
 

Chủ Nhật, ngày 01 tháng 12 năm 2013

Rice Crops Manager for Vietnam

FOOD CROPS Nutrient Manager for Rice (NMRice) is a computer- and mobile phone-based application that provides farmers with fertilizer advice matching their particular farming conditions. Select from the locations below to obtain a field-specific fertilizer recommendation for rice:

see more IRRI information  http://webapps.irri.org/vn/rcm 


















 
Dr. Roland J. Buresh (R) and Dr. Ngo Dang Phong (L).

Tiến sĩ Roland J. Buresh là chuyên gia khoa học cây trồng và môi trường, Viện Nghiên cứu Lúa Gạo Quốc tế IRRI (web:www.irri.org). Ông thầm lặng dâng hiến cả cuộc đời mình cho chén cơm ngon và đời sống của hàng triệu người dân. Đó là Những Nhà Khoa Học Xanh như Norman Borlaug, Lương Định CủaAnthony Bellotti, Phạm Trung Nghĩa,  ...


Những tác phẩm nổi tiếng của Tiến sĩ Roland J. Buresh và đồng nghiệp: Decision tools for extension and famers Nutrient Manager for rice www. irri.org/nmrice; Videos for extention and famers Tales of Ryza the Rice Plant http://bit.ly/ryza_tales; Feeding Crop needs Site-Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) www.irri.org/ssnm ; Service for profitable rice farming Nutrient Manager for Rice and Facebook www.facebook.com/irrinmricewww.facebook.com/irri.nmrice.ph


http://webapps.irri.org/ph/rcm
Philippines
 http://webapps.irri.org/bd/rcm/


 Bangladesh  Guangdong, China Tamil Nadu, India Indonesia 





 
  West Africa

Video yêu thích http://www.youtube.com/user/hoangkimvietnam Trở về trang chính Hoàng Kim, Ngọc Phương Nam, Thung dung, Dạy và học, Cây Lương thực, Học mỗi ngày, Danh nhân Việt, KimTwitter, KimFacebook, KimYouTube, Food Crops News, CassavaViet, foodcrops.vn





FOODCROPS.VN SYSTEM

  • 2013-11-30 - [image: 2013-11-30] Date: Nov 30, 2013 Number of Photos in Album: 1 View Album
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Thứ Ba, ngày 10 tháng 9 năm 2013

Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons



FOOD CROPS. Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons. Nguyen Van Bo, Hoang Kim, Le Quoc Doanh, Tran Ngoc Ngoan, Bui Chi Buu, Rod Lefroy, Le Huy Ham, Mai Thanh Phung, Tran Vien Thong. The report provides information on Production and consumption of cassava over the world and in Vietnam; Achievement and learnt lessons from Vietnam cassava in a half decade of reservation and development; Conclusion. This is the first speech of three of “Vietnam Cassava, reservation and development”. Key workds: Vietnam cassava, cassava production and consumption, achievements and learnt lessons.



Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop for food, animal feed, starch processing and currently main raw materials for biofuel processing which has high comparative advantage of many countries in the world and Vietnam. In 2011, there are 100 cassava production countries over the world with total areas of 19.64 million ha, average fresh root yield of 12.83 tons/ha, production of 252.20 million tons (FAO, 2013a)[5]. In Vietnam, cassava is an important food crop which ranks the third in terms of production after rice and maize. In 2011, the national cassava area reached 560,000 ha, average yield of 17.63 ton/ha, production of 9.87 million tons (GSO, 2013a) [32]. Global Cassava Conference held in Belgium in 2008 delivered the message: “Cassava is a gift of the world, opportunity for poor farmers and challenge to scientists”(Claude M. Fauquest 2008)[4]. Instructions on using cassava to produce starch, bio-ethanol, modified starch, animal feed and bio-film are increasingly interested. Vietnam is complimented on spectacular cassava yield which was increased 400% from 8.5 tons/ha in 2000 to 36 tons/ha in 2011 in many smallholders, according to press release “Cassava’s huge potential as 21st century crops ” by FAO in May 2013, (FAO, 2013b) [6]. Cassava dried chips and starch of Vietnam are ones of ten key export products. Vietnam currently has 13 bio-ethanol factories with capacity of 1067.7 million litres of bio-ethanol per year, 66 industrial starch processing factories, more than 2000 manual processing units (Hoang Kim, Le Huy Ham et al. 2013) [12]. Cassava is a choice of many poor smallholders and people who are living in drought, bad fertile soil and a choice of many processing and trading enterprises thanks to its high profits, easy growing, less caring, low cost, easy harvest and process. Cassava producing, processing, consuming, researching and developing are opportunities, prospects of farmers and enterprises of Vietnam as well as many coutries in the world, however, cassava, at the same time, faces many risks and constraints.

This report provides general information on Production, consumption of cassava in the world and Vietnam; Achievement and cassava learnt lesson of Vietnam in a half decade of reservation and development; Conclusion. This is the first in series of three speeches: “Vietnam cassava, reservation and development”.

Cassava production, consumption in the world and Vietnam

Cassava – a 4F crop of the 21st Century. Cassava is a food crop with 252.20 million tons in production, the 5th rank after maize (883.46 million tons), rice (722.76 million tons), wheat (704.08 million tons) potato (374.38 million tons). 66% of cassava is planted in Africa, 20% in Asia and 14% in Latin America (FAO, 2013) [5]. Cassava is food of more than one billion people in the world, particularly in Africa where cassava is a main food crop. Cassava is a feed crop, flour/ starch processing crop for MSG, instant noodle, candies, sirup, beverage, packages, carton board, pharmaceutical additives, bio-film, soil moisture holders and a main inputs for processing bio-fuel with high comparative advantage (Figure 1 & Figure 2).



Figure 1: Cassava world production in 2008 (FAO 2010, cited by Hoàng Long)


Figure 2. Main crop world production in 2011 (FAO, cited by Hoàng Kim)

Cassava world production. Africa leads cassava production until 2011 reached 140.97 million tons, accounted for 55,90 % total world production of 252.20 million tons. Nigerial is top ranking in this continent with 52.40 million tons in 2011. Asia cassava production is accounted for 30 % of total world production with 3.91 million ha, average yield of 19.60 tons/ha and production of 76.68 million tons. Cassava plays an important role in economy of Thailand, Indonesia, China, Philippines. America is the third cassava production region in the world. Cassava areas in America increased from 2.54 million ha in 2000 to 2.85 million ha in 2005 then decreased to 2.67 million ha in 2011. Average yield of America is 12.88 ton/ha, production is 34.36 million tons in 2011. Brazil is the most production of this continent with 1.74 million ha in 2011, accounted for 65 % cassava areas in America (FAO, 2013) [5].

Ten countries leading cassava production in the world in 2011 are Nigeria 52.4 million tons. Brazil 25.44 million tons, Indonesia 24.00 million tons, Thailand (21.91 million tons). Republic of Congo (15.56 million tons) Angola (14.33 million tons), Ghana (14.24 million tons), Vietnam (9.87 million tons), India (8.00 million tons), and Mozambique (6.26 million tons).


Figure 3 Vietnam cassava production in comparison with four leading countries
(Hoàng Kim et al. 2013b)

Cassava areas of 10 countries mentioned above are respectively 3,73; 1,74; 1,18; 1,13; 2,17; 1,07; 0,89; 0,56; 0,22; 0,97 million ha. (FAO 2013 a) [5].

Global cassava production trend. Cassava production increases very fast from 162.48 million tons in 1995 to 252.20 million tons in 2011. Cassava area in 1995 was 16.46 million ha increased to 19.64 million ha in 2011. The world average cassava yield in 1995 was 9.87 ton/ha, increased to 12.84 ton/ha in 2011. (Table 1).



The world cassava import and export. Three leading export countries are Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. Thailand accounts for 60- 85% total global cassava export in recent years, followed by Indonesia and Vietnam. Recently Cambodia cassava becomes a prospective export product. China is the most cassava importer for bio-fuel, modified starch, animal feed and pharmaceutical food industries. Main export markets of Thailand are China, Taiwain, Japan and EU with 40% of starch, 25% dried chip and pellets (Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo et al. 2010a)[14].

Cassava market projection. According to cassava global market research of FAO and IFPRI, global cassava production will reach 275,10 million tons in 2020 projectively, mainly in developing countries with 274.7 million tons, in developed countries with 0.40 million tons. Cassava consumption in developing countries will be 254.60 million tons while 20.5 million tons in developed countries. Total cassava volume used for food will be projected at 176.3 million tons and animal feed at 53.4 million tons. Annual demand growth on cassava for food and animal feed are 1.98% and 0.95%. Africa will be still a lead continent with production of 168.6 million tons in 2020. Of which, the volume using for food will be 77.2 %, and animal feed will be 4.4 %. Latin America in period of 1993 - 2020, annual consumption growth rate is tentatively at 1,3 %, in comparison with Africa at 2.44 % and Asia at 0.84 – 0.96 %. Cassava continues to maintain its important role in many Asian countries particularly in Southeast Asia where its cassava areas is the third after rice and maize and its total production is the third after rice and sugar cane. Cassava production trends depend on crop competitiveness. Main solutions are to increase cassava yield through adoption of new varieties and advanced technology (Hoàng Kim, 2013a) [11].

Cassava production in Vietnam. Cassava is important income sources of poor farmers thanks to its easy cultivation, low requirement on soils, low investment costs, suitability to bio-ecology and farmer’s livelihoods. Cassava is widely grow from the North to the South of Vietnam with more than half of million ha (Table 2) and production of almost 10 million tons (table 3).





+ North Central Coast and South Central Coast: Cassava areas in 2011: 168,600 ha (30,10 % total areas), yield: 17.66 ton/ha and production: 2,977,900 tons of fresh roots (30,15 % total production). The most areas in Binh Thuan, Nghe An, Quang Ngai and Phu Yen.

+ Central Highland Region: Area in 2011: 154,600 ha (27,60 % total area), Yield 16.70 ton/ha, production 2,582,200 tons of fresh roots (26.15 % total production). Cassava is more planted in Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Lak and Dak Nong

+ North provinces: Areas in 2011: 117,200 ha (20.92 % total areas), yield: 12.36 ton/ha, production: 1,448,900 tons of fresh roots (14.67 % total production). Most cultivated in Son La, Yen Bai and Hoa Binh.

+ South Eastern region: Area in 2011: 99,000 ha (17.68 % total area), yield: 25.34 ton/ha the highest in the country, production is 2,536,500 tons of fresh roots (25,68 % total production). Most planted in Tây Ninh, Bình Phước, Đồng Nai, Bà Rịa – Vũng Tàu and Bình Dương.




Figure 4 Graph: Areas of cassava by regions of Vienam.


Figure 5 Vietnam cassava Areas, production (2001 – 2011).

High cassava export turnover in Vietnam. According to custom data, in 2010 total export cassava in 2010 was 1,677 thousand tons cassava and cassava based products. Turnover of 556 million USA. Of which cassava chips accounted for 56,8%, cassava starch: 42,9%. Processed product export is growing and raw product export is decreasing are good signal in the context of many national industries need raw materials and cassava starch price is strongly increasing in the international market. China is the largest market of Vietnam cassava in 2010 accounted for 94,8 % total cassava chip turnover (196.5 million USA) and 90 % of total export of cassava starch (315.4 million USD) (Food crop system of Vietnam, 2011a) [7]. Cassava and cassava based product exports of Vietnam in 2011 was 2.68 million tons (960.2 million USD). In the end of 2012 exports of this product group was 4.23 million tons, increased 57.7% and valued at 1.35 billion USD, increased 40,8 %. China maintains the main market of Vietnam cassava with 3.76 million tons, increased 54.4 % in comparison with previous year and accounted for 88.9 % total export of this product group (custom data, 2013) [31].

Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons

Vietnam cassava achievement. Yield increasing in the half of recent century (1961-2011) is expressed in fig. 6. Vietnam cassava yield in comparison with the world yield (since 1975) is presented in fig. 7. Cassava production and yield of Vietnam significantly increase in recent years. The production in 2011 was 9.87 million tons from 559.80 thousand ha, average yield: 17.81 ton/ ha (GSO 2013)[32]. In 2000, cassav production was 1.98 million tons, yield was 8.35 ton/ ha while the production in 2011 increased 4.98 folds and the yield doubled.

Vietnam cassava yield growth. Cassava yield increased significantly recently. In 1976, the yield was 7.86 ton/ha, in 2000 was 8.35 ton/ha, close to Africa’s yield (8.65 ton/ha) but in 2011 the yield reached to 17.73 ton/ha, much more than the average one in Africa at 10.77 ton/ha and higher than 12.92 tons/ha of America. The one of Vietnam now is lower than that of India (36.47 ton/ha), the leading country in cassava yield of the world, Cambodia (21.30 ton/ ha), Indonesia (20.30 ton/ ha) and Thailand (19.29 ton/ha) but cassava yield of many smallholders in Vietnam reach to 36.00- 50.00 ton/ ha, more than 400% than before.



Fig 6: Vietnam cassava yield in the past half century (1961-2011). Yield growth mainly from 2000.

Fig 7: Vietnam cassava yield and the world from 1975. Impressive yield growth rate since 2000 inVietnam

Tây Ninh is the typical province on yield and production increase that bring huse benefits for farmers and enterprises (Table 4).



Total natural land of Tay Ninh is 404,929 ha, of which agricultural land: 349,064 ha, with 12 types of soil, Grey poor fertile soil group accounted for 83.04% total natural areas, next to that is alluvial soil 5.41% and red yellow soil 3.58%. In 2011, rice area was 155.5 thousand ha (winter spring crop: 45.8 thousand ha, summer autumn crop: 52.9 thousand ha, main crop 56.8 thousand ha) average rice yield: 4,89 tons/ha, Production 760.7 thousand tons (GSO 2013b) [32]. Cassava, peanut, legume, sugarcane are main crops of the province which accounted for 35,0%, 24,2%, 21,3% and 13% in turn. Cassava contributes great deal in income sources of farmers. Good cassava variety is a basic factor which makes the change. Main variety is KM94 accounted for 60% total cassava areas, followed by KM98-5 about 40%, KM419 and others about 10% (Trần Viễn Thông 2011) [33].

Vietnam cassava reservation and development history. Before 1986, local varieties such as Gòn, Xanh Vĩnh Phú ... were mainly planted. These are good for eating but low yield (about 10 tons/ha), low starch content (20 - 25 %). From 1986 to 1990, HARC collected, selected and introduced three varieties of HL23, HL20 and HL24 mainly for food and feeds with fresh roots yield of 20 - 23 ton/ ha, planted in 70,000 – 80,000 ha annually in the south (Hoàng Kim, Trần Ngọc Quyền, Nguyễn Thị Thủy 1990) [21]. Xanh Vĩnh Phú and sloppy land cultivation practices were early piloted in the north (Nguyễn Văn Tiễn, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn, Đặng Thị Ngoan, Nguyễn Thế Hùng, Nguyễn Hữu Hồng 1994) [30 ]. Cassava contributed significantly into food security particularly in difficult stage of the country (Hoàng Kim, Phạm Văn Biên 1995) [20]. From 1988 to 2012, VNCP collaborated with CIAT and achieved huge results in cassava research and development (Phạm Văn Biên, Hoàng Kim 1998) [1). (Pham Van Bien, Hoang Kim et al. 2007) [2] (Hoang Kim, Nguyen Van Bo el al 2010) [14]. Eight good cassava varieties were introduced for approval and production. Of which there were 6 domestic and selected: KM60; KM94, KM95; SM937-26 (Trần Ngọc Quyền, Hoàng Kim et al 1995)[29] ; Trần Ngọc Ngoạn 2000 [28]; Trịnh Phương Loan, Trần Ngọc Ngoạn et al. 1995), KM98-1 (Hoàng Kim, Kazuo Kawano et al 1999) [19] KM98-7 (Trịnh Thị Phương Loan, Nguyễn Trọng Hiển et al 2008) [25]; Two of them were bred: KM140 (Trần Công Khanh, Hoàng Kim et al 2007, 2009, 2010) [23, 22] and KM98-5 (Trần Công Khanh, Hoàng Kim et al. 2009) [24 ].

Vietnam has become a distinctive model of Asia and the world in application of selective technology and breeding cassava and setup sustainable cassava production practices. Many good farmers as Hồ Sáu (Tây Hòa, Trảng Bom, Đồng Nai), Tống Quốc Thanh (Sa Nghe, Hảo Đước, Châu Thành, Tây Ninh), Trần Thị Quyền (Hà Tây), Nguyễn Thị Sáu (Hà Tây), Ngô Trung Kiên (Phổ Yên),…who planted cassava with high yield, high profits in many years and became reach thanks to cassava (Kazuo Kawano 2001, 2009) [9,10], Reinhard Howeler 2004, 2008 [34, 35 ]). “Vietnam is a main export agricultural products country and leading in somes with total export agricultural value of 25 billion USD per year. With more than half of million ha, cassava export value is 800-950 million USD per year. CIAT has significant contributions in this results by improving cassava sub-sector of Vietnam”.“At national level, cassava has become a main export product. Millions farmers have been benefited from changes in yield and profits. Variety material from CIAT through selective process and breeding cover 90% of total cassava area of Vietnam.” (Bùi Bá Bổng 2012) [3].

Vietnam cassava learnt lessons. Three lessons are withdrawn from Vietnam Cassava Program: 1)  6M, 10T working together, 2) Farmer Participatory Research - FPR 3) Cassava in Vienam: Save and Grow (Hoang Kim, Pham Van Bien et al. 2003 [18], Hoang Kim et al. 2013 [12 ]):

6M in English: 6 linkages


1. Man Power Con người
2. Market Thị trường
3. Materials Giống mới, Công nghệ mới
4. Management Quản lý và Chính sách
5. Methods Phương pháp tổ chức thực hiện
6. Money Tiền

10T in Vietnamese: 10 experiences in transfer technology
1) Thử nghiệm (Trials)
2) Trình diễn (Demonstrations)
3) Tập huấn (Training)
4) Trao đổi (Exchange)
5) Thăm viếng (Farmer tours)
6) Tham quan hội nghị đầu bờ (Farmer field days)
7) Thông tin tuyên truyền (Information, propaganda)
8) Thi đua (Competition)
9) Tổng kết khen thưởng (Recognition, price and reward)
10) Thành lập mạng lưới nông dân giỏi(Establish good farmers' network)

Working  Together: VNCP, CIAT, Links “4 home”: farmers, scientists and extension workers, business,  government


2) Nông dân tham gia nghiên cứu (Farmer Participatory Research - FPR)



3) Sắn Việt Nam bảo tồn và phát triển bền vững (Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow)
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow TayNinh
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 1Daklak
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 2Daklak
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow 3Daklak


Save and grow: Cassava - cover

Save and Grow: Cassava A guide to sustainable production intensification (FAO, 2013)
ISBN 978-92-5-107641-5
140 pp. 182 x 257 mm, paperback
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" Instructions on using cassava to produce starch, bio-ethanol, modified starch, animal feed and bio-film are increasingly interested. Vietnam is complimented on spectacular cassava yield which was increased 400% from 8.5 tons/ha in 2000 to 36 tons/ha in 2011 in many smallholders, according to press release “Cassava’s huge potential as 21st century crops” by FAO in May 2013 (FAO, 2013b)" [6].

Conclusion

Vietnam cassava was developed sustainably in the first years of the 21st century (2000-2013). Cassava achievement of Vietnam is huge: Cassava has been transformed from food crop, feed crop into 4F crop (Food, Feed, Flour, Fuel). At national level, cassava has become main export crop and presented in million smallholders thanks to changes in yield and profits. Cassava material from CIAT through selective and breeding process has covered more than 90% of total cassava areas of Vietnam. Learnt lesson of VNCP, 6M,10T and FPR are collaboration experiences that accelerated bringing advanced technology into production for million poor farmers.

Sources:

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17. Hoang Kim, Pham Van Bien, Reinhardt Howeler, Joel J. Wang, Tran Ngoc Ngoan, Kazuo Kawano, Hernan Ceballos 2005. The history and recent developments of the cassava sector in Vietnam. In: Innovative technologies for commercialization: Concise papers of The Second International Symposium on Sweetpotato and Cassava, 14-17 June 2005, Corus Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia/ jointly organized by Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, International Society for Horticultural Science with cooperation of Food Biopolymer Research Group, Universiti Sains Malaysia. p. 26-27.

18. Hoang Kim, Pham Van Bien and R.H.Howeler 2003. Status of cassava in Vietnam: Implications for future research and development. In: A review of cassava in Asia with country case studies on Thailand and Viet Nam; FAO-IFAD-CIAT-CIRAD-IITA-NRI. Proceedings of the validation forum on the Global Cassava Development Strategy held in FAO - Rome, Italy, April 26-28, 2000.Vol/3.Rome, Italy, p103-184. http://www.globalcassavastrategy.net

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35. Reinhardt Howeler, 2004. Intergrated cassava-based Cropping Systems in Asia: Farming Practices to Enhance Sustainability. End of Project Report Second Phase of the Nippon Foundation Cassava Project in Asia 1999-2003. The Nippon Foundation- CIAT, 120 p.

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Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow TayNinh
Tây Ninh hướng đến thâm canh cây mì bền vững

http://www.youtube.com/user/hoangkimvietnam

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Hoàng Kim, Ngọc Phương Nam, Thung dung, Dạy và học, Cây Lương thực, Học mỗi ngày, Danh nhân Việt, Food Crops News, CassavaViet, foodcrops.vn

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