Thứ Bảy, 1 tháng 5, 2010

Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and the breeding of improved cultivars

FOOD CROPS. This report cover of: 1) Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and its potential as a bio-fuel; 2) The selection of cassava materials derived from CIAT. 3) progress of cassava varietal improvement in Vietnam (Update: December 2009)
Hoang Kim1, Nguyen Van Bo2, Nguyen Phuong1, Hoang Long 3,
Tran Cong Khanh 3, Nguyen Trong Hien 2, Hernan Ceballos4, Rod Lefroy 4, Keith Fahrney 4, Reinhardt Howeler4 and Tin Maung Aye4 . ABSTRACT. In 2009 cassava production in Vietnam was about 9.45 million tonnes, up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansion, from 237.600 ha to 560.400 ha, and marked increases in yield, from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2009. Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new varieties propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors, of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. Cassava yields and production in several provinces have more than doubled due to the planting of new high-yielding cassava varieties in about 500.000 ha, mainly KM94, KM140, KM98-5, KM98-1, SM937-26. KM98-7 varieties. and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. Cassava chips and starch is now being produced competitively, and cassava markets are promising. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs, has increased exports, attracted foreign investment, and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas. The largest array of field trials to evaluate cassava varieties for improved ethanol production from the CIAT core collection that is held in Vietnam and from the breeding programmes of VNCP research partners. A total of 24.073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37,210 seeds from 9- 15 cross combinations made in Vietnam 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand), and 31 local farmer's varieties. have been planted. Of these, 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process. and three of the most promising, KM140, KM98-5 and KM98-7 has recently been released in the period 2007 - 2009. The new advanced cassava varieties KM297, KM228, KM318, KM325, KM397, KM21-12, SC5, HB60 are being undertaken in the Regional Yield Trials (RYT) of Tay Ninh, Ninh Thuan. and Yen Bai provinces.

Key words: Current situation of cassava in Vietnam, the selection of cassava materials derived from CIAT
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1 Nong Lam University (NLU). Linh Trung. Thu Duc. Ho Chi Minh City. Viet Nam. hoangkim_vietnam@yahoo.com ; phuongdtg@yahoo.com  ; http://cropsforbiofuel.blogspot.com ,

2 Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS). Van Dien. Thanh Tri. Ha Noi nvbo@hn.vnn.vnn ; trong_hienccc@yahoo.com  

3 Institute of Agriculture Science for Southern Vietnam (IAS); 121 Nguyen Binh Khiem dist. 1. Ho Chi Minh city. trancongkhanh_vietnam@yahoo.com.vn ; luckydragon1985@yahoo.com

4 International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). Cali. Colombia; h.ceballos@cgiar.org; r.lefroy@CGIAR.ORG ; k.fahrney@cgiar.org   ; r.howeler@cgiar.org ; t.aye@cgiar.org  

INTRODUCTION
Cassava in Vietnam was about 9.39 million tonnes in 2008. up from only 1.99 million tonnes in 2000. This was the result of both area expansion. from 237.600 ha to 556.000 ha. and marked increases in yield. from 8.36 t/ha in 2000 to 16.90 t/ha in 2008. Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers. The situation has changed because of the development of sustainable cultivation techniques and new high-yielding varieties with the availability of a large and growing market demand. Cassava has become a cash crop in many provinces of Vietnam and cassava markets are promising for export of cassava chips to China. Vietnam has developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 100 to 150 million liters per year. Petrovietnam plans to build three tapioca-based ethanol plants in the northern (Phu Tho). central (Quang Ngai) and southern Vietnam (Binh Phuoc). Each costing $80 million which will use cassava as feedstock. is expected to open in 18 months with total annual capacity of 300 million liters per year..

Vietnam has made the fastest progress in application of new technologies in breeding and new cultivar propagation in Asia. Such progress has been considered as a result of many factors. of which the success in breeding and application of new technologies were the main contributing factors. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs. has increased exports. attracted foreign investment. and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) has planned to remain cassava area around 450.000 hectares from 2011 -2015 and efforts to increase fresh root yield from from 16.90 to 20.00 ton/ha in 2011 and 23.00 - 24.00 ton/ha in 2015 by using new technologies. especially in breeding (MARD 7256/TB-BNN-VP 25 12 2009).

To meet the demands raising cassava cultivation. we have caried out the study on the development of cassava cultivar good yield and qualities for different ecological zones in whole country in collaboration by Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS) and Nong Lam University (NLU) with International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) linking the poor to global markets of IFAD/ICRISAT Project “Harnessing water –use efficiencet bio-energy crops for enhancing livehood opportunities of smallhooder farmers in Asia. Africa and Latin America”. This report cover of: 1) Current situation of cassava in Vietnam and its potential as a bio-fuel; 2) The selection of cassava materials derived from CIAT. 3) progress of cassava varietal improvement in Vietnam (Update: December 2009)
CASSAVA IN VIETNAM AND ITS POTENTIAL AS A BIOFUEL 

A new future of cassava for food. feed and bio-fuel
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) ranks as the world’s fifth most important foot crop- after maize, rice, wheat and potato. Cassava originated in South America and expended wildly to Asia. Africa and being cultivated in 105 countries in a range from 39oN to 30oS. This crop is a staple food crop for many poor farm families around the world. It is also a source of commercial animal feed. starch for the food, candy, alcohol, noodle and pharmaceutical industries (Fig. 1).


Figure 1. Cassava production in the different countries in the world 2008
Source : FAO 2008 adapted by Hoang Long

Global production of cassava is around 232.95 million tons in year 2008 (Table 1) and about 54% of cassava in the world was produced in Africa. 30% in Asia. and only 16% in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC).


Cassava production in Asia increased at a high rate of 3% annually during the late 70s and early 80s. slowed down during the 90s. and has been growing quite rapidly again at 3.3% per year during the past ten years (Reinhardt Howeler and Keith Fahrne. 2008).


Figure 2
. Cassava production and yield trends in Vietnam and Asia’s principal cassava producing countries. 1961-2006. (Source: Reinhardt Howeler and Keith Fahrne. 2008)

Impact simulations indicate that root and tubers will play economically important and increasingly diversified roles in developing country food systems over the next two decades (2020 vision by IFPRI and CIP: Gregory J.Scott. Mark W. Rosegrant. Claudia Ringler 2000). Cassava has one of the highest rates of CO2 fixation and sucrose synthesis for any C3 plant. This plant is dry land crop to have high water use efficiency being used as a suitable feedstock for ethanol production across Asia. Africa and Latin America . Bio-fuels are gaining importance ever since fossil fuel prices began skyrocketing due to geo-political issues and also the growing concerns all over about environmental pollution. Considering these issues. various developed and developing countries are formulating policies for mandatory blending of ethanol and bio-diesel (produced from renewable sources) with fossil fuels (petrol and diesel) resulting in a huge demand for raw materials for producing bio-fuel (UNEP 2009; Peter Baker 2009). In China. Brazil. Nigeria. Thailand. Indonesia. Colombia. Vietnam. Philippines and Cambodia. cassava is seen as an important crop to use for the production of bio – fuels.

Cassava is among the four most important food crops in Vietnam (Table 2) and also is water- use efficient bio-energy crop. Cassava now an important source of cash income to small farmers. Cassava chips and starch is being produced competitively.


China import annually 500,000 tonnes of cassava starch, and 3.5 million tonnes of cassava dry chips. equivalent to about 12 million tonnes of fresh root, that is 1.5 times of Chinese annual production now (Tian Y Nong 2009). Continued improvements, such as the introduction of better cassava varieties and plantation techniques, are expected to increase unit production of the crop. Moreover, an additional 670.000 hectares of hillside wastelands in Guangxi are suitable for growing the crop, adding to the existing 270,000 hectares of plantations. The region will also be able to obtain a stable supply of cassava mainly from Vietnam and neighboring producer countries.

Vietnam also has developed an E10 policy requiring the production of 100 to 150 million liters per year. Prime Minister approved “the scheme on bio-fuel development to 2015 and the vision to 2025”, aiming to produce bio-fuels and partly replace traditional fuels. contributing to ensure energy security and environment protection. Petrovietnam plans to build three tapioca-based ethanol plants in the northern (Phu Tho). central (Quang Ngai) and southern Vietnam (Binh Phuoc). Each costing $80 million which will use cassava as feedstock, is expected to open in 18 months with total annual capacity of 300 million liters per year. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs, has increased exports, attracted foreign investment. and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas.

Current production and use of cassava in Vietnam
In Viet Nam about 66% of cassava is grown on Utisols, 17% on Inceptisols, 7% on Oxisols, 4% on Alfisols, 3% on Entisols and 2% on Vertisols. The soil pH generally varies from 4.5 to 6.0. In North Viet Nam, cassava is grown mainly in areas with hilly topography and about 68% of the cassava growing area has a rocky soil. while 12% have sandy soils, respectively. In South Vietnam cassava is grown mainly sandy-grey soils, these soils are flat and poor in nutrients, of the Central Coastal and the Southeast region, accounts for about 60 % of the total cassava area of the South. While more than 30% cassava is grown in the Central Highlands and Dong Nai, Binh Phuoc of Southeast region on red yellow soils with hilly topography. Due to these marked differences in cassava soil characteristics, research in the north should concentrate on erosion problems and soil fertility enhancement. Whereas in the south research on cassava variety improvement, soil fertility enhancement and conservation by using intercropping systems is of highest priority.

In 2009 cassava planted area has reached 560.4 thousand hectares (Table 3), in which about 78% of total area was allocated in the Central Coast, Central Highlands and Southeastern. It can be seen that the cassava production in Vietnam has been gradually shifted to the Central and the Southeast areas in the recent years, especially in Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Dak Nong and Dak Lak provinces in the Central Highlands; and Tay Ninh. Dong Nai, Binh Phuoc, Binh Thuan provinces in the Southeastern; and Quang Nam. Quang Ngai, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen provinces in the South Central Coast. The three regions all have increased the areas of cassava production with different levels. Prominent among three regions is the Central Highlands with a significant increase in period 2000 – 2009 (Table 4). http://www.gso.gov.vn/default.aspx?tabid=390&idmid=3&ItemID=8785.


Cassava farm size in Viet Nam is small and cassava farms in the Southeastern Region are on average double the size of those in North Viet Nam. Cassava area per farm for all of Viet Nam average 0.27 ha, with extremes for the Southeast (0.85 ha) and the North Mountainous Region (0.20 ha). When farms are classified according to size, 31.6% of the sampled farms are smaller than 0.6 ha, 35.5% are between 0.6–1.05 ha, and the remaining 33% are larger than 1.05 ha.

During the 1980s and 1990s cassava production in Vietnam was in decline. But in the past nine years (2000-2009). cassava production increased from 1.99 million tones in 2000 to 9.45 million tones in 2009. This was achieved through both area expansion. from 237.600 ha in 2000 to 560.400 ha in 2009 and marked increases in yield from 8.36 tons/ha in 2000 to 16.87 tons/ha in 2009. New high-yielding cassava varieties (Table 5) and more sustainable production practices have increased the economic effectiveness of cassava production. In year 2009 more than 500.000 ha of new varieties, mainly KM94, KM140, KM98-5, KM98-1, SM937-26, KM98-7 were grown. this corresponds to more than 90 % of the total cassava area in whole country.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, in the 2009-crop, Viet Nam has about 560,400 ha of cassava under production, 9.45 million tonnes of cassava were harvested, up 2,700 ha and an increase of 59,200 tonnes over 2008. Cassava yields and production in many provinces have doubled, stimulated by the construction of new large-scale cassava processing factories. The cassava output in each region/province has been corresponding to the planted area and yield which greatly depends on the application of new high-yielding cassava varieties in each province and the adoption of more sustainable production practices. While twenty years ago there were no medium- or large-scale cassava starch factories in Vietnam, there are now 60 cassava processing factories in operation with a total processing capacity of 3.2- 4.8 million tones of fresh roots/year. Total cassava starch production in Vietnam was about 800.000- 1.200.000 tones, of which 70% was exported and 30% used domestically.

Vietnam is now probably the second largest exporter of cassava products after Thailand with 2.00 -4.00 million tones of cassava dry chip (Table 6a). and about 0.4 -0.8 million tones of tapioca starch exported, respectively. Mainland China remained the biggest importer of Vietnamese cassava and accounted for 90 per cent of the industry’s export income. South Korea and Taiwan were the second and third biggest importers. Demand has soared, largely due to demand from China, which uses the root to produce ethanol. The total export in year 2009 around 4 million tonnes of cassava chip exports and more than 350 thousand tones of cassava starch and flour. Prices of cassava chip exports fell to a low of $135 a tonne at the beginning of year 2008, but have since risen to between $180 and $195 a tonne in last December 2009


A case study of cassava market in the Central provinces of Vietnam . On average. labour cost accounts for 59.9% of cassava production costs. In some regions. like the Binh Dinh and the Gia Lai. this may be for 52.8% and 68.7%. respectively (Table 7)

The average labour requirement for cassava production is 125 mandays/ha. The second largest cost item is fertilizer. constituting 41.8% in Binh Dinh and 24.7% in Gia Lai. depending on farmers’ investment in fertilizer. With the selling price of fresh root of 900 VND/kg; farmers can earn 10.720 to 11.200 thousand VND/hectare. The total variable cost of cultivation in Feb. 2008 was about US$ 455- 567.5/ha. at an average root yield of 22.0 t/ha. the production cost would be US$ 20.68- 25.79 /t fresh roots. Gross income is US$ 1.155- 1.237.5 /ha. Net income is US$ 670 - 700/ha. Reporting of farmers in : 32% of fresh root has been processed by farmers for exportation; 27% total fresh root for cassava starch processing, 22% of fresh root farmers sell to processing households, 19% farmers use for animal feeding or domestic consumption.

THE SELECTION OF CASSAVA MATERIALS DERIVED FROM CIAT 

The objectives of further genetic improvement of cassava varieties in Vietnam are: 1) to increase the yield potential, dry matter content and starch content, and enhance early harvestability; 2) Identification of cassava high-yield varieties suited to different agro-ecological zones and the integration of these into smallholder farming systems. 3) identifying the best cassava varieties for bioethanol production, In addition, the work above on breeding and pre-breeding lines will help define the breeding strategies for increased crop productivity and bioethanol production.

The largest array of field trials are in Tay Hoa village. Trang Bom district. of Dong Nai province. These include trials to evaluate cassava varieties for improved ethanol production from the CIAT core collection that is held in Vietnam and from the breeding programmes of VNCP research partners (Table 8).



The trials (Table 9) include two trials for the Conservation of Elite Germplasm (CEG) and F1 Seeding Trials (F1). two Single Row Trials (SRT). two Preliminary Yield Trials (PYT). and two Standard Yield Trials (SYT).

The screening of quality characteristics likely to be related to improved fermentability continues with three pre-breeding accessions that have interesting traits for crossing and development into high-yielding varieties . The new advanced cassava varieties KM297, KM228, KM318, KM325, KM397, KM21-12, SC5, HB60 are being undertaken in the Regional Yield Trials (RYT) of Tay Ninh, Ninh Thuan. and Yen Bai provinces (Table 10 Table 11, Table 12, Table 13 and Table 14)






PROGRESS OF CASSAVA VARIETAL IMPROVEMENT

Recent progress in cassava breeding
The aims of the cassava breeding are: to select and release new varieties with high-yield capacity of 35-40 t/ha, a starch content of 27-30%, a growing period of 8-10 months, erect stems, short internodes, less branching, compact canopy, uniform root size, white root flesh and suitable for industrial processing. As a result, two new cassava varieties KM140 and KM98-5 have been identified and released in South Vietnam in year 2007 and 2009; one new cassava variety KM98-7 also have been identified and released in North Vietnam in year 2008 with the yield higher than local check KM94. These varieties are being transferred to a large number of households in Vietnam.

Cassava variety KM140 is a hybrid selected from KM98-1 x KM 36 cross in 1998 (Figure 3). Thirty cassava comparison experiments and two experiments for determining the best harvesting time of some cassava cultivars were carried out. On red soil in South East region. experiments were planted at beginning of rainy season and harvested after planting from 6,7,8,9,10,11 and 12 months. On grey soil. planted at beginning rainy season and harvested after 10,11 and 12 months.
The data revealed that KM140 has fresh root yield of 33.4 – 35.0 ton/ha. starch content of 26.1 -28.5%. starch yield of 9.5 – 10.0 ton/ha; better than that of KM94. Content of HCN in KM140 is 105.9 mg/kg dry matter. it can be used as fresh consumption. lower than that of KM94; its harvest index was 65%. good resistance to pests and diseases (Figure 4) .


In South East region. planting at middle of rainy season and harvesting 10 months later revealed that all cassava cultivars gave low starch content (16.6%-22.5%). If harvested 11 months after planting. almost cultivars had starch content around 25% satisfying the requirement of processors. If harvested 12 months after planting most of the cultivars gave good fresh root yield and starch content. but this would cause inconveniences for next crop cultivation. Planting at beginning rainy season and harvesting at 7.8 and 9 months after. KM140 gave fresh root yields of 23.5. 26.7 and 28.7 ton/ha. respectively. equal to that of KM94. Starch content of KM140 harvested 8 months after planting was 28.4% higher than of KM94 (26.2%). with signnificant difference (Figure 5).


Cassava variety KM98-5 is a hybrid selected from KM98-1 x Rayong 90 cross in 1998. On grey soil of Tay Ninh province. KM89-5 has fresh root yield of 34.5 – 37.8 ton/ha. starch content of 27.2 -29.8%. starch yield of 10.0 – 11.7 ton/ha; higher than that of KM94 and KM140.

KM140, KM98-5, KM98-7, SM937-26. KM98-1 are now playing an important role in cassava production in South East and Central Coastal regions. Central Highlands in the South (Tran Cong Khanh, Hoang Kim, Vo Van Tuan, Nguyen Huu Hy, Dao Huy Chien, Pham Van Bien, Reinhardt Howeler and Hernan Ceballos 2009, 2007, Tran Cong Khanh 2007; Vu Van Quy 2009, Le Van Luan 2008, Nguyen Thi Cach 2007).

Two new cassava varieties KM98-7 and KM21-12 are being transferred to a large number of households in the Northern mountainous areas (Nguyen Trong Hien, Ha Dinh Tuan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Binh 2009; Trinh Phuong Loan, Nguyen Trong Hien, Dao Huy Chien, Tran Ngoc Ngoan, Nguyen Viet Hung et al. 2008).

Improvement of crop productivity
The productivity of cassava can be increased by selection of the most appropriate varieties as well as by using the most appropriate cultural methods of production. including appropriate fertilizer applications. soil erosion control. and intercropping. Trials have been established at the pilot sites in Dong Nai. Yen Bai. and Thua Thien Hue provinces to determine (i) the agronomic potential of intercropping systems that include cassava with sweet sorghum. or maize. or groundnut; (ii) the best management practices for these cropping systems, with particular reference to integrated soil fertility management and soil erosion control; and (iii) the best. high yielding varieties of sweet sorghum. maize. and groundnut to intercrop with cassava.

The varieties selected for evaluation with cassava were: Six sweet sorghum lines from ICRISAT (ICSB38. PVK801. ICSR93034. ICSV574. NTJ2. and IS41333). one groundnut cultivar from ICRISAT (ICGV91114). and six new maize varieties from NLU and HARC in Viet Nam. In addition. two pigeon pea cultivars (ICP7035 and ICPL 20092) were obtained from ICRISAT for evaluation.

Two on-farm trials using cassava variety KM140 intercropped with maize variety VN25- 99 are being undertaken at the pilot site in Tay Hoa village. Trang Bom district. Dong Nai province to determine best management practices for cassava-maize cropping systems (Table 15 and Figure 6).


Similar on-farm trials using cassava variety KM94 intercropped with groundnut varieties L14. HL25 are being undertaken to determine best management practices for cassava- peanut cropping systems (Table 16). Three of the cassava-peanut on-farm trails are being implemented at the pilot site in Phong My village, Phong Dien district, Thua Thien Hue province, and another in Tay Hoa village. Trang Bom district. Dong Nai province, and Mau Dong village, Van Yen district, Yen Bai province.


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion
Vietnam is a classic example of how cassava can contribute to rural industrialization and development. Previously. people were reluctant to grow cassava because they thought that cassava caused soil degradation and produced low profits. But in reality one hectare of cassava can produce 60-80 tones of fresh roots and leaves. The situation has changed because of the development of sustainable cultivation techniques and new high-yielding varieties with the availability of a large and growing market demand. Cassava has become a cash crop in Vietnam. Cassava chips and starch is now being produced competitively, and cassava markets are promising. The combination of wide spread production of fresh cassava roots and the processing of cassava into chips starch and ethanol has created many jobs, has increased exports. attracted foreign investment. and contributed to industrialization and modernization of several rural areas.

The largest array of field trials to evaluate cassava varieties for improved ethanol production from the CIAT core collection that is held in Vietnam and from the breeding programmes of VNCP research partners A total of 24.073 cassava sexual seeds from CIAT and 37.210 seeds from 9- 15 cross combinations made in Vietnam 38 breeding lines (mainly from Thailand), and 31 local farmer's varieties. have been planted. Of these. 98 of the best lines are now in the final stages of the selection process. and three of the most promising, KM140, KM98-5 and KM98-7 has recently been released in the period 2007 - 2009.

The new advanced cassava varieties KM297, KM228, KM318, KM325, KM397, KM21-12, SC5, HB60 are being undertaken in the Regional Yield Trials (RYT) of Tay Ninh, Ninh Thuan. and Yen Bai provinces

Recommendation
After twenty years of development (1991-2010). intensive cassava research and extension have changed cassava from being a food crop to being an industrial crop. Cassava in Vietnam is now promising for export and domestic use. VNCP was agreed to emphasize the following five topics:

1. Determination of an appropriate strategy for cassava research and development cooperation with processing factories in establishing areas with a stable source of raw materials; use of cassava for bio- ethanol.

2. Selection of cassava doubled haploid lines derived from materials of CIAT and applying mutation in cassava breeding; Selection and dissemination of high-yielding varieties with high starch contents; Selection and development varieties with high root yield, short duration and improvement of quality and nutritional value of cassava.

3. Research on integrated cultivation techniques and transfer of appropriate cultivation techniques to farmers to increase the productivity and economic efficiency of cassava production in different eco-regions.

4. Research on the development of cassava processing technologies; Use of cassava leaves and roots in animal feeds and food processing. Cassava starch, ethanol effluent and byproducts transformation into animal feed and fertilizers.

5. Development of local and export markets for cassava products.

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Zaida Letini, Hernan Ceballos 2003. Development of a Protocol for the Generation of Cassava Doubled- Haploids and their Use in Breeding. In Developping Haploid Technology for Manihot esculenta Crants (Cassava). Proceedings Planning Workshop. CIAT. Cali. Colombia. June 11-12. 2003. Sponsored by the Rockefeller Foundation and the United Nations Development Program. 17 p.

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