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Thứ Hai, 15 tháng 7, 2019

Cassava in Vietnam an overview of production and selection



CASSAVA IN VIET NAM AN OVERVIEW
OF PRODUCTION AND SELECTTION

  Hoang Long[1], Nguyen Thi Truc Mai[2], Hoang Kim[3],
Nguyen Bach Mai[4], Ishitani Manabu [5] and Reinhardt Howeler[6]

Abstract
The cassava revolution in Vietnam has yielded spectacular results in trials organized in Tay Ninh, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 t/ha  to 36 t/ha - an increase of more than 400 percent. The recent progress of sustainable cultivation techniques for cassava in Vietnam are three provinces of Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Phu Yen, the key  study area. In Vietnam, cassava has become the third most important food crop, after rice and maize. In 2017 the cassava area in Vietnam reached 532,501 ha, with a production of 10.26 million tons, and a yield of 19.28 t/ha. Within Asia, Vietnam is the four largest producer, after Thailand,  Indonesia and Cambodia. Between 1971 and 2000, cassava yields in the country ranged from 6 to 8 t/ha, and the crop was grown mainly for human food and animal feeding. This changed markedly with the introduction by CIAT in 1988 of some high-yielding breeding lines and varieties from Thailand. Two varieties, Rayong 60 and KU 50, were selected for release in 1993 and 1995 and named as KM60 and KM94, respectively. During the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st Century, Vietnam produced several new cassava varieties, initially mainly selections from sexual seed from Thailand and CIAT, such as KM95-3, SM937-26, KM98-1, KM98-7, but also made crosses that resulted in the release of the latest new varieties: KM140, KM98-5 and KM419. Cassava in Vietnam has great potential but also big challenges. At the national level, cassava has become one of the main export crops which has provided for millions of smallholders an opportunity to increase their yields and profits. Vietnam cassava achievement and learnt lessons: The Vietnam National Cassava Program (VNCP), 6M, 10T and Farmer Participatory Research (FPR) are collaborative experiences that helped to bring advanced technologies into production for millions of poor farmers. This included the selection of high-yielding varieties and the testing and selection by farmers of appropriate technologies. New variety KM419: this is a short duration variety with a fresh root yield of 35-55 t/ha (about 28% higher than KM94) and a starch content of 28-31%. This variety is now grown in about 500,000 ha with 220,000 ha in Viet Nam and 280,000ha in Cambodia. KM419 and KM94 with 42% and 37% of the area of Vietnamese cassava today, with about 50% and 40% of the current cassava area of Cambodia.  The Cassava sustainable development in Dac Lak and Phu Yen was similar to that in Tay Ninh. The breeding and adoption of new varieties, such as KM419 and KM94, resulted in a complete transformation of cassava, from a poor man’s food crop to a highly profitable industrial crop. Cassava in Vietnam: an amazing success story. This report summarizes the achievements and lessons of Vietnamese cassava. Main problems and solutions to improve cassava product chain in Vietnam. The recent cassava boom in productivity and economic efficiency coincided with the emergence and serious spread of the world and Vietnam of cassava pest disease (CWBD dragon broom and CMD cassava mosaic). In particular, leaf mosaic disease (caused by the harmful virus of Sri Lanka Cassava Mosaic Virus) spread very quickly and seriously damaged cassava growing areas. Research and development topic "Selection of high yielding cassava varieties resistant to some major pests and diseases suitable to the conditions of three main cassava growing regions in Vietnam"

Key words: Cassava in Vietnam, production and selection, an overview


Hoang Long et al. 2019. Paper presented at ChangHae Group and VNCP “Working together 6Ms 10T and Commercial Cassava Area”, Vietnam Korea Green Road, 16 July 2019.
[1] Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; hoanglongvn85@gmail.com
2 Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF), 102 Phung Hung, Hue, Vietnam;
3 Tay Nguyen University (TNU), 567 Le Duan - Buon Ma Thuot , Dak Lak , Vietnam;
  maithuyantam@gmail.com  
4 Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
6 CIAT-Emeritus; r.howeler@cgiar.org
5 CIAT Cassava Office for Asia, ILCMB/ AGI, 200 Pham Van Dong , Ha Noi, Vietnam;



Cassava and Vietnam: Now and Then


CASSAVA AND VIETNAM: NOW AND THEN
Hoàng Kim

On 21 -25 August, 2017, Dr. Claude M. Fauquet, Director of the Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21), who cassava trip in Vietnam, do a road trip for five days to visit four key provinces and city Dong Nai, Ho Chi Minh city, DakLak, and Phu Yen. We look at cassava research and production and processing and shared meeting with presentations and discussions on collaboration between GCP21, CIAT and IAS, NLU for the ‘Cassava Conservation and Sustainable Development in Vietnam’.

"I have learned a great deal about cassava in Vietnam and I have a better view of what the near future will be in your country! The road from Daklak to Phu Yen was indeed very interesting and the cassava plantations are quite impressive. I was also quite interested to see the decline in cassava plantations with the competition with sugarcane and pepper, that is quite a concern! And the future will tell us what will happen. And thanks for organizing the visit to the village with the vice-king of cassava and his colleagues, very interesting and very enthusiastic lunch! I hope that his example will teach other farmers to adopt new varieties and that you can help in the process". Dr. Claude said.

After cassa trip in Vietnam. Dr. Claude send email to Dr. Hoang Kim and VNCP group:

"Hoang, I am coming to you, because you know everything in Vietnam and therefore you can probably advise on the next phase.
In our exchange of information prior to my visit, I said that the outcome of such visit was mostly unpredictable, and I believe now that the outcome could be to set-up a regional task force to control CMD in the region!
The following points are clear to me:
1.   The disease is now spreading quickly; mid 2016 the infection was located in a few places in Cambodia and now it is in 5 provinces in East Cambodia and at least one in Vietnam.
2.   The disease is mostly spread by cuttings, although whiteflies are present they play for now a minor, but important role.
3.   There are several initiatives that have been taken; JIICA, CIAT, FAO, ACIAR, but none at the level required to control the disease.
4.   We need to set-up a regional project simply because viruses do not know about borders and there is a lot of traffic of cuttings, at least Cambodia-Vietnam.
5.   Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam should all be enrolled in the plan.
6.   GCP21 could serve as a catalyzer to promote the development of this regional plan.
I have contacted all parties, including Thailand (TTDI and KU), waiting for more comments. So far the idea is shared by many people.
My question to you are:
·     Do you share my views about the necessity of the regional plan?
·     Who are the very key Vietnamese institutions and persons in Vietnam who should be involved in the preparation of such plan.
·     Is there anybody in charge of CMD in Vietnam to collect and centralize samples, information…
Many thanks

Claude M. Fauquet,
Director of the Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21)

See more ...

Cassava conservation and sustainable development in Vietnam




  Hoang Kim[1], Nguyen Thi Truc Mai[2], Nguyen Bach Mai[3] and Reinhardt Howeler[4]

ABSTRACT

The project entitled “Vietnam Cassava Conservation and Sustainable Development” has been very successful, as indicated by the results of trials and demonstrations conducted in Tay Ninh, Dak Lak, Phu Yen and Dong Nai provinces, where farmers using the improved technologies and practices boosted cassava yields from 8.5 t/ha to 36 t/ha - a more than four fold increase.


During the period from 1975 to 2015 cassava has become the third most important food crop in Vietnam, after rice and maize. In 2013 the cassava area in Vietnam reached 544,300 ha, with a production of 9.74 million tonnes, and an average yield of 17.9 t/ha. Within Asia, Vietnam is now the third largest cassava producer, after Thailand and Indonesia. Between 1975 and 2000, cassava yields in the country ranged from 6 to 8 t/ha, and the crop was grown mainly for human food and animal feeding.
This changed markedly with the introduction by CIAT in 1988 of some high-yielding breeding lines and varieties from Thailand. Two varieties, Rayong 60 and KU 50, were selected for release in 1993 and 1995 and were named KM60 and KM94, respectively. During the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st Century, Vietnam produced several new cassava varieties, initially mainly selections from sexual seed from Thailand and CIAT, such as KM95-3, SM937-26, KM98-1, KM98-7, but our breeders also made crosses that resulted in the release of the latest new varieties: KM140, KM98-5, KM419 and others. The breeding and adoption of new varieties as well as the development and adoption of more sustainable production practices resulted in a complete transformation of cassava, from a poor man’s food crop to a highly profitable industrial crop. More recently, new advances in cassava cultivation techniques have focused on key demonstration sites in the provinces of Tay Ninh, Dak Lak and Phu Yen using mainly KM419 as a very promising short-duration cassava variety with a fresh root yield of about 35-55 t/ha (28% higher than KM94) and a starch content of about 28-31%. This and other new varieties, together with new advances in cassava cultivation techniques, have yielded spectacular results in trials organized in those three provinces.

The Vietnam National Cassava Program (VNCP) has introduced various methodologies, named “6M” and “10T”, as well as Farmer Participatory Research (FPR), as collaborative experiences that helped to bring advanced technologies into production for millions of poor farmers. This included the s
election of high-yielding varieties and the testing and selection by farmers of locally appropriate technologies. Cassava in Vietnam has great potential but also faces big challenges. At the national level, cassava has become one of the main export crops, which has provided for millions of smallholders an opportunity to increase their yields and improve their standard of living.

Key words:
Cassava, production, utilization, cultivation techniques, achievements, lessons and  challenges, conservation, sustainable development, Vietnam.


Báo Nông nghiệp Việt Nam: Giới thiệu 5 giống sắn mới 
Tuyển chọn 4 giống sắn mới;  Thu hoạch sắn ở Phú Yên


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow, PhuYen


Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow DakLak video 1  2, 3
Cassava in Vietnam: Save and Grow, Tay Ninh, video 1



[1] Nong Lam University (NLU), Linh Trung, Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam;
2 Hue University of Agriculture and Forestry (HUAF), 102 Phung Hung, Hue, Vietnam;
3 Tay Nguyen University (TNU), 567 Le Duan - Buon Ma Thuot , Dak Lak , Vietnam;
  maithuyantam@gmail.com 
4 CIAT-Emeritus; r.howeler@cgiar.org












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